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#Exhibit of the Month

From the early days of Christianity, the cross meant not only an instrument of torture, but also a symbol of victory over death, a symbol of salvation. The object is made of silver, having the shape of a Byzantine cross with trapezoidal edges of the arms. The side arms and the one at the bottom seem to be turned inside a vessel (chalice (?)) with the trapezoidal "foot". The arms of the cross and of the "chalice" were ended with a decorative element in the shape of a sphere (drop). The cross has a decoration in relief, executed in the technique of filigree and granulation, consisting of drops, double and triple cords, circles with a drop in the center, and trefoils (?). In the center of the cross, at the intersection of the arms, there is a round mount with a cord-like edge, in which the pomegranate fruit is located. However, the main decorative element is the images of four peacocks turned to the right, with a snake in the beak, arranged on all the arms of the cross. The image of the peacocks is rendered in an artistic way, and their tails are stylized in the shape of a palmette.
The peacock, originated from India, due to its luxurious fan-shaped tail, was considered a symbol of the Sun. In ancient Greece, they were considered the sacred birds of the goddess Hera, and in ancient Rome they were considered the sacred birds of the goddess Juno. In Kievan Rus', the peacock (the Firebird) also symbolized the Sun. In the West, the peacock was considered a snake killer, and the iridescent colors of its tail were attributed to its ability to turn snake venom into solar substance. Since snakes in Iranian symbolism were considered enemies of the sun, it was believed that the peacock killed snakes, in order to create "eyes" from their saliva, iridescent with a bronze-green and gold-blue color on the feathers of its tail. Due to the bright splendor of the male peacock's tail, it has been compared with immortal gods and, therefore, with immortality. Peacocks are known as an emblem of greatness, royal authority, spiritual superiority, ideal creation.

In the early period of Christianity, the peacock was a symbol of love, resurrection, immortality, beauty, eternity of the soul, the all-seeing eye of the Church, and the peacock feather was the emblem of Saint Barbara. The image of peacocks with snakes in their beaks on the cross is not at all accidental; it symbolizes the victory of Christ over evil.

On the back side of the cross, traces of fixing are preserved, probably of a pin (missing), so the object served as a brooch (fibula), which was probably attached to the fabric. The piece is presumably dated back to the 9th-12th centuries.

The object has the following dimensions: height - 125 mm; width - 86 mm; weight - 47 g.


 
National Museum of History of Moldova
 

#Exhibit of the Month

April 2021

Cross fibula
From the early days of Christianity, the cross meant not only an instrument of torture, but also a symbol of victory over death, a symbol of salvation. The object is made of silver, having the shape of a Byzantine cross with trapezoidal edges of the arms. The side arms and the one at the bottom seem to be turned inside a vessel (chalice (?)) with the trapezoidal "foot". The arms of the cross and of the "chalice" were ended with a decorative element in the shape of a sphere (drop). The cross has a decoration in relief, executed in the technique of filigree and granulation, consisting of drops, double and triple cords, circles with a drop in the center, and trefoils (?). In the center of the cross, at the intersection of the arms, there is a round mount with a cord-like edge, in which the pomegranate fruit is located...

March 2021

THE GOSPEL of 1855
The lack of Romanian-language religious books in Bessarabia under the rule of the Russian Empire forced the church authorities in Chişinău to order the resumption of their printing. After a period of crisis, through which the printing activity within the Diocese of Chişinău and Khotin had passed, in 1853 it was revived. At the suggestion of Bishop Irynarch Popov, the Economic Directorate of the Bishops' House ordered the purchase of new equipment (fonts of different sizes) for the printing house, ink, paper, and also the staff was increased. A boom in the publishing work of the printing house follows, which was accompanied by many publications. The Gospel in Romanian, published in 1855, was the third work printed at the Diocesan Printing House reopened in 1853...

February 2021

Bronze kyathos
Kyathos (Ancient Greek: κύαθος - ladle, cup) is an ancient Greek vessel (ladle), used to pour wine from various larger vessels (kraters, hydriai, pelicai, and so on) into drinking cups. During the existence of these vessels, they were made of different materials: from silver and bronze to burnt clay, the latter ones being often painted with red and black figures, and sometimes covered only with black slip. In the myths about Hercules, a young cupbearer named Kyathos is mentioned, who during a feast, scooping up wine from a vessel with a ceramic ladle to pour it into Hercules' bowl, accidentally broke the high handle of the vessel (which often happens) and spilled wine on the legendary hero. Hercules, not calculating his strength, gave the inattentive young man a flick on the forehead...

January 2021

Coin hoard from Caracușenii Vechi, Briceni District
The hoard was found in 1957 during the agricultural works near the village. At first, the hoard was in the collection of the National Museum of Ethnography and Natural History and later was transferred to the National Museum of History (Accession: FB: 12 576 - 12650; N: 12 658 - 12 732). It consists of 75 silver coins from the thaler category issued by the Kingdom of Poland, the United Provinces and the Holy Roman Empire in 1612-1648...

December 2020

Binoculars-shaped vessel from Ciulucani
The artifact was discovered in 1990 near the village of Ciulucani in the Teleneşti District, during the arrangement of a pond. In the same year, the archaeologist Tatiana Todorova carried out excavations in the settlement, which were meant to save part of its area from imminent destruction. The settlement of Ciulucani I is located on the slope of the valley of a stream, a left tributary of the Ciulucul Mic River, 12 km north of the village of Ciulucani. The vessel belongs to the Cucuteni culture, one of the oldest civilizations in Europe (5200 to 3200 BC), which was named after the eponymous village near Iaşi, where in 1884 the first its remains were discovered. The Cucuteni culture preceded all human settlements in Sumer and Ancient Egypt by several hundred years. The Cucuteni culture (Ukrainian: Trypillian culture) spread over an area of 350,000 square kilometers, on the current territory of Romania, the Republic of Moldova and Ukraine...

November 2020

Chair that belonged to the great Bessarabian philanthropist and patriot Vasile Stroescu (1845-1926)
The National Museum of History of Moldova collects, preserves, researches and exhibits, for the purpose of knowledge and education, material evidence related to the history of Bessarabia. The museum collections are constantly enriched through acquisitions, donations and archaeological excavations. In the first half of 2018, the museum collections were replenished with new material values, related to the history of the nobility in Bessarabia. As a result of the field investigations, carried out in the village of Brânzeni, Edineț District, five pieces of furniture were purchased, which belonged to Vasile Stroescu: a cabinet, a sofa, a chest of drawers, a chair and a wall mirror. The pieces were purchased from Elizaveta Gureu, the granddaughter of Gheorghe Tincu, who was the manager of the Brânzeni estate, owned by the Stroescu family...

October 2020

Fabergé inkwell
Peter Carl Fabergé (1846-1920), was a famous jeweler of French origin, who became the official supplier of jewelry for the Imperial House in Russia, and when we say Fabergé, we mean not just jewelry, but rather works of art. The famous Russian jewelry House of Fabergé received worldwide recognition for the elegance and uniqueness of its products. In the late 19th - early 20th century, the House of Fabergé was a world-class phenomenon known for its famous "Easter eggs" made of precious metals and stones. The first egg was crafted in 1885, when Tsar Alexander III decided to give his wife a special gift on the occasion of the 20th anniversary of their marriage...

September 2020

Bronze satyr
Among the Greek mythological figures, there is a satyr (Ancient Greek: Σάτυρος), also called Silenus, a male spirit of nature and forest, known to be the companion of the gods Pan and Dionysus. Satyrs were imagined as dancing in the fields, drinking wine with Dionysus and chasing maenads and nymphs. According to the descriptions in myths, they had human-like upper part of the body and the horse-like or goat-like legs, and also a long and bushy tail. Gradually, animalistic features in the image of a satyr recede, their lower limbs become human (legs, not hooves). The satyr Marsyas (Μάρσιας) plays a special role in Greek legends. Sometimes the god Pan is depicted in the guise of a satyr...

August 2020

The icon of Our Lady of Hârbovăţ
It is said that the icons, by the divine grace they have, choose their own places from where they can manifest their powers of blessing and consolation. It so happened that one icon of the Mother of God has remained on our lands from the end of the 18th century, when the battles of the Russo-Turkish war of 1787-1791 took place here. The circumstances of the appearance of this icon in Bessarabia are confirmed by several historical references, from which it follows that the Russian officer N.A. Albaduev, a participant in the military campaign, brought this icon here with him, and after his death his relatives – the colonel’s wife or his mother – gave this icon to the monastery, where he suddenly died when he came there on Christmas to receive communion. The icon of the Mother of God was initially placed in the old wooden church, where the officer’s grave was located, and then was placed in the new Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin, built and consecrated in 1816...

May, 2020

It is a sports trophy obtained at an inter-school oina (a bat-and-ball game) competition in interwar Bessarabia. We don't know which schools participated in this competition, nor the venue, we only know that one of the winners received the second prize and that the event was held on May 13, 1934. In this way we learn about the existence of different sports competitions organized by schools, including the oina game. Oina is a beautiful and complex sports game that promotes the development of body and spirit, courage and the desire for self-improvement. Oina is a treasure of the Romanian people, which must be sacredly kept and passed on to future generations....

April, 2020

Today we open a new stage in the presentation of collections of the National Museum of History of Moldova by highlighting the #Exhibit of the Month. As soon as we open our doors, you will be able to admire museum pieces that are not known to the general public, but are so valuable that they deserve a special place. For now, we invite you to admire them here...


 

 


Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age

  
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#Exhibit of the Month

From the early days of Christianity, the cross meant not only an instrument of torture, but also a symbol of victory over death, a symbol of salvation. The object is made of silver, having the shape of a Byzantine cross with trapezoidal edges of the arms. The side arms and the one at the bottom seem to be turned inside a vessel (chalice (?)) with the trapezoidal "foot". The arms of the cross and of the "chalice" were ended with a decorative element in the shape of a sphere (drop). The cross has a decoration in relief, executed in the technique of filigree and granulation, consisting of drops, double and triple cords, circles with a drop in the center, and trefoils (?). In the center of the cross, at the intersection of the arms, there is a round mount with a cord-like edge, in which the pomegranate fruit is located...

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