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National Museum of History of Moldova
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#Exhibit of the Month

This unusual object of the Scythian period was found in 1953 by a village teacher A.I. Shiryaev at the top of a mound near the village of Răscăieţii Noi in the Ştefan Vodă District. A quarter of a century later, excavations in 1979 revealed that this outstanding mound (about 10 m high and more than 40 m in diameter) was erected in the Early Bronze Age, at the beginning of the 3rd millennium BC. Then, two thousand years later, there were buried Scythians, with which, apparently, other finds are associated, a cauldron and a finial, cast in bronze.

The finial from Răscăieţii Noi is one of the items made in the Scythian animal style, a special manner of decoration that spread along with the culture of the early nomads of Eurasia from Central Europe to the Black Sea region and the Caucasus, from the Volga region to southern Siberia, from Central Asia to Mongolia and northern China. However, in spite of the general Eurasian coverage, the artifact from Răscăieţii Noi contains features characteristic mainly of Eastern Europe. Firstly, it was the Eastern European nomads who preferred to portray both daytime birds of prey (Falconiformes) and individual parts of their body: their head or beak. Secondly, the "European" bestiary of the Scythian animal style (as opposed to the "Asian" Scythian-Siberian bestiary) often includes fantastic animals (and their various "artistic transformations") that came here under the influence of the cultures of the Middle East. Thus, the "fantastic" image of the Răscăieţii Noi artifact is given by a beak bent in one and a half turns, which does not happen in nature. Thirdly, the very shape of the object is characteristic only for the North Caucasus, the steppes of the Black Sea region and the Ukrainian forest-steppe.

Such finials were interpreted as symbols of power, as a kind of standard banners, and even as decorations for the masts of ships. However, most researchers consider them to be associated with funeral processions, most likely to decorate funeral canopies, carts or chariots. The latter version seems to be the most preferable, especially since similar decorations are found on the images of the chariots of the Middle East. In terms of style, the artifact from Răscăieţii Noi is associated with finials from the mounds of the Ukrainian forest-steppe and the North Caucasus, however, performed in a more realistic manner. It seems that the specimen from Răscăieţii Noi shows further stylization of the image, reaching its highest stage, when the beak is only guessed in the curls of the upper part of the finial, but the pronounced cere and relief eye still emphasize the resemblance to the head of a bird of prey. From the middle of the 5th century BC things made in such a stylized manner penetrate into the steppes of the Black Sea region, including the bank of the Dniester in its lower reaches, where the finial was found near the village of Răscăieţii Noi.


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National Museum of History of Moldova
 

History

The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most important museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific prestige.


The Museum was established on December 21, 1983, when there was issued the Order of the Ministry of Culture No. 561 “On reprofiling of the Museums” (on the basis of the Joint Decree of the Central Committee of the CPM and the Council of Ministers of MSSR “On the utilization of the historical monument – the edifice of the former Chisinau Boys’ Gymnasia where S. Lazo studied” from 29th of November, 1983).

The State Museum of History of MSSR was created on the basis of the Republican Museum of Military Glory, into which it was incorporated, and the historical collection of the State Museum of History and Regional Studies of MSSR. It was housed in the restoring historical building of the former Chisinau Boys’ Gymnasia No.1, where formerly the Republican Museum of Military Glory had been located.

On October 22, 1991, by the Order of the Ministry of Culture No. 231 “On perfection of the republican museums’ activity”, the State Museum of History of MSSR was renamed to the National Museum of History of Moldova.

In 2006 the National Museum of History of Moldova was reorganized into the National Museum of Archaeology and History of Moldova through absorption of the Museum of Archaeology of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova, according to the Decree of the Government of the Republic of Moldova No.1326 “On the measures of optimization of infrastructure in the field of science and innovation” from 14th of December, 2005.

According to the Decree of the Government of the Republic of Moldova No. 184 of 13 March 2013, the National Museum of Archaeology and History of Moldova is renamed as the National Museum of History of Moldova.

At present the National Museum of History of Moldova is subordinate to the Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Moldova, its scientific activity being coordinated by the Academy of Sciences of Moldova.

The Museum collections, which initially consisted of the collections of the Republican Museum of Military Glory and the State Museum of History and Regional Studies of MSSR, every year were enriching with items of real scientific value through research, donations, and acquisitions. Besides, in 1989 – 1995 and 2006 – 2007, large transfers of collections from a number of broken up museums – the Republican Museum of Friendship Among the Peoples, the Museum of History of the CPM, the Republican Museum of History of the Komsomol, the Republican Museum of G.I. Kotovsky and S.G. Lazo, the Republican Museum of the History of Religion, the Memorial Museum of Bulgarian Volunteers, and the Museum of Archaeology of The Academy of Sciences of Moldova – also contributed to the growth and diversity of the Museum property.

Today the National Museum of History of Moldova owns 348,619 items, the diversity of which covers the history of Moldova over the centuries, from prehistoric times to the present, telling about the land, facts, events, and outstanding people.

In 1991 the first permanent historical exhibition “Pages of Centuries-old History of Moldova”, covering the period from the oldest times to 1940, was opened to the public. It was located in three rooms of the 1st floor, with an area of 645 sq. m., containing about 900 exhibit items. The exhibition illustrated the features of the area between the Prut and Dniester in the context of the history of medieval Moldavian state. As to the period after the dismemberment of Moldova in 1812, in the exhibition there was presented only the history of Bessarabia.

In 1997 the permanent historical exhibition was redesigned in content, placement, and by the method of presentation. It expanded to the entire first floor, occupying six rooms with an area of 1,400 sq. m. Chronological framework of the exhibition includes the period from the Paleolithic to the end of the fifth decade of the twentieth century.

In 2006 – 2007 the museum was in a new process of rebuilding of the permanent exhibition, intending to make radical changes in terms of vision and the content of exhibits, representing the section of prehistory and ancient history. Underlying these changes are the collections transferred from the former Museum of Archaeology of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova.  Of course, the current formula of the permanent exhibition is an intermediate. Now there is conceptually and thematically developing a new vision of the exhibition of the National Museum of History of Moldova.

In August 1990, in the ground floor of the Museum there was open to the public the Diorama of the Iasi – Chisinau Operation, and in 1994, in the basement – the exhibition of items made of precious metals “Treasure-house”. 
 
The Museum also offers the public diverse temporary exhibitions, which complement the permanent exhibition and contribute to the promotion of the Museum cultural and historical property.  From its opening, the Museum has organized over 650 temporary exhibitions (at the Museum, outside the Museum, and abroad), based on its own collections as well as in collaboration with other cultural and research institutions.



The Edifice

The National Museum of History of Moldova from the very beginning was located in the historical building of the former Chisinau Boys’ Gymnasia No.1, later the Boy’s Lyceum named after B.P. Hasdeu (in 1945 – 1963 in the premises there was housed the frontier detachment “Nistru”, and in 1963 – 1977 – the Polytechnic Institute), that was in the process of restoration.

The earthquake of 1977 has played a tragic role in the history of this monument, causing serious damage that could lead to a total destruction of the building. Restoration work, started in 1979, was halted because, due to the severe destruction, the building was beyond repair.




The old building was demolished and replaced by a new one (the construction lasted from 1980 to 1987), which retained only the exterior of the historical monument, built in eclectic style, and decorative elements of the gymnasia assembly hall, repeated in three domical rooms of the new building. 

Thus, the new museum edifice, taken in operation in 1987, is a modern two-storey monumental building facing the 31 August, 1989 Street.  It has 12 exhibition rooms and a diorama, with a total area of 5,700 sq. m.


 

 


Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age

  
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#Exhibit of the Month

This unusual object of the Scythian period was found in 1953 by a village teacher A.I. Shiryaev at the top of a mound near the village of Răscăieţii Noi in the Ştefan Vodă District. A quarter of a century later, excavations in 1979 revealed that this outstanding mound (about 10 m high and more than 40 m in diameter) was erected in the Early Bronze Age, at the beginning of the 3rd millennium BC. Then, two thousand years later, there were buried Scythians, with which, apparently, other finds are associated, a cauldron and a finial, cast in bronze. The finial from Răscăieţii Noi is one of the items made in the Scythian animal style, a special manner of decoration that spread along with the culture of the early nomads of Eurasia from Central Europe to the Black Sea region and the Caucasus, from the Volga region to southern Siberia, from Central Asia to Mongolia and northern China...

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2021 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2021 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

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