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#Exhibit of the Month

Among the Greek mythological figures, there is a satyr (Ancient Greek: Σάτυρος), also called Silenus, a male spirit of nature and forest, known to be the companion of the gods Pan and Dionysus. Satyrs were imagined as dancing in the fields, drinking wine with Dionysus and chasing maenads and nymphs. According to the descriptions in myths, they had human-like upper part of the body and the horse-like or goat-like legs, and also a long and bushy tail.

Gradually, animalistic features in the image of a satyr recede, their lower limbs become human (legs, not hooves). The satyr Marsyas (Μάρσιας) plays a special role in Greek legends. Sometimes the god Pan is depicted in the guise of a satyr.

The historian Hesiod tells us about their origins, mentioning that satyrs are wine lovers, and legends also claim that it was the satyrs who saved Ariadne (Aριαδνη), the daughter of King Minos from Crete, who was abandoned by her lover Theseus (Θησεύς) on the island of Naxos (Νάξος).

It is believed that satyrs have tremendous strength and endurance, and also love music, and one of their main attributes is the flute. Also among the attributes of satyrs there are the thyrsus, vessels for wine, and wineskins.

The figurine of a satyr from the NMHM collection is unique. It is made of bronze and has a height of 17 cm. The figurine is made in a stylized manner, the character is presented in a standing position, as if he is holding something in his right hand, and his left hand is damaged. The left leg is also not completely preserved. Some researchers consider it to be the handle of a vessel (possibly of a cup). Certainly, the object had a symbolic character.

We assume that this artifact belongs to the period of Classical Greece and dates back to the 4th century BC.

 
National Museum of History of Moldova
 

Chronological Axis


Aeneolithic Age

(late 5th millennium B.C. - early 3rd millennium B.C.)

The archaeological collections related to this period are the most representative ones. The development of material and spiritual culture testifies to the existence of different communities of farmers and nomadic cattle-breeders. Representatives of the Cucuteni-Tripolye culture inhabited the vast territory from the Carpathians to Dnieper for about 1,500 years (late 5th millennium B.C. – early 3rd millennium B.C.).

In the territory of the Republic of Moldova there are known more than 600 settlements of farmers, some of which were archaeologically investigated: Floresti, Rogojeni, Rusestii Noi, Radulenii Vechi, Petreni, Varvareuca, Brinzeni, etc. At this time there were first produced metal (copper) items. Tools made of bone and stone are predominant.  The earthenware collection is remarkable for the variety of vessels decorated with carving or painted in diverse ornamental styles. The ornamental compositions contain cosmologic scenes, astral symbols, fantastic animals, and anthropomorphic deities. The spiritual life of the communities is represented by an impressive collection of zoo- and anthropomorphic figurines.

At the same time in the south of the Prut-Dniester area there was spread the Bolgrad-Aldeni culture represented by an impressive material.

Cattle-breeding tribes from North-Pontic steppes, which are represented here by the archaeological monuments of the Suvorovo-Novodanilovca and Cernavoda type, played an important part in the history of Aeneolithic communities. The stages of transition from the Aeneolithic to the Bronze Age in the Prut-Dniester area are represented by the archaeological cultures like the Brinzeni, Gordinesti, and Usatovo ones, which have harmoniously combined elements of the Cucuteni civilization and features of the cultures of the North-Pontic cattle-breeders identified with the ancient Indo-Europeans.

1.Vessel, the Bolgrad-Aldeni culture
 
1.Vessel, the Bolgrad-Aldeni culture - Aeneolithic Age
 
2.Vessel, the Bolgrad-Aldeni culture
 
2.Vessel, the Bolgrad-Aldeni culture - Aeneolithic Age
 
3.Female figurine of “Orante” type, the Bolgrad-Aldeni culture
 
3.Female figurine of “Orante” type, the Bolgrad-Aldeni culture - Aeneolithic Age
 
4.Painted amphora with zoomorphic representations, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
4.Painted amphora with zoomorphic representations, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture - Aeneolithic Age
 
5.Head of anthropomorphic figurine representing a slipping female deity, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
5.Head of anthropomorphic figurine representing a slipping female deity, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture - Aeneolithic Age
 
6.Anthropomorphic top of lid representing male deity, the Early or the Middle Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
6.Anthropomorphic top of lid representing male deity, the Early or the Middle Cucuteni-Tripolye culture  - Aeneolithic Age
 
7. Female figurine sitting on the zoomorphic “throne”, the Early Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
7.	Female figurine sitting on the zoomorphic “throne”, the Early Cucuteni-Tripolye culture  - Aeneolithic Age
 
8.Female figurine, the Early Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
8.Female figurine, the Early Cucuteni-Tripolye culture - Aeneolithic Age
 
9.Stemmed “fruit dish” vessel with lid, with incised and excised decoration, the Early Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
9.Stemmed “fruit dish” vessel with lid, with incised and excised decoration, the Early Cucuteni-Tripolye culture  - Aeneolithic Age
 
10.Stemmed “fruit dish” vessel with incised and excised decoration, the Early Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
10.Stemmed “fruit dish” vessel with incised and excised decoration, the Early Cucuteni-Tripolye culture  - Aeneolithic Age
 
11.Stemmed “fruit dish” vessel with painted design, the Middle Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
11.Stemmed “fruit dish” vessel with painted design, the Middle Cucuteni-Tripolye culture  - Aeneolithic Age
 
12.Painted anthropomorphic amphora with lid, the Middle Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
12.Painted anthropomorphic amphora with lid, the Middle Cucuteni-Tripolye culture  - Aeneolithic Age
 
13.Painted amphora with representation of the Great Goddess possessing animals, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
13.Painted amphora with representation of the Great Goddess possessing animals, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture - Aeneolithic Age
 
14.Female figurine, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
14.Female figurine, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture - Aeneolithic Age
 
15.Bowl with zoomorphic representations, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
15.Bowl with zoomorphic representations, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture - Aeneolithic Age
 
16.Painted pear-shaped vessel, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
16.Painted pear-shaped vessel, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture - Aeneolithic Age
 
17.Painted vessel, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
17.Painted vessel, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture - Aeneolithic Age
 
18.Female figurines, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
18.Female figurines, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture - Aeneolithic Age
 
19.Female figurines, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
19.Female figurines, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture - Aeneolithic Age
 
20.Painted amphora, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
20.Painted amphora, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture - Aeneolithic Age
 
21. Copper items, the Middle Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
21. Copper items, the Middle Cucuteni-Tripolye culture - Aeneolithic Age
 
22. Painted dishes and bowls, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
22. Painted dishes and bowls, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture - Aeneolithic Age
 
23.Painted vessels, the Middle Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
23.Painted vessels, the Middle Cucuteni-Tripolye culture - Aeneolithic Age
 
24.Binocular vessel, the Middle Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
24.Binocular vessel, the Middle Cucuteni-Tripolye culture - Aeneolithic Age
 
25.Figurine of a bull, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
25.Figurine of a bull, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture - Aeneolithic Age
 
26. Painted vessels: lidded anthropomorphic amphora representing a female deity and bowl, the Middle Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
26. Painted vessels: lidded anthropomorphic amphora representing a female deity and bowl, the Middle Cucuteni-Tripolye culture - Aeneolithic Age
 
27. Binocular vessel, the Middle Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
27. Binocular vessel, the Middle Cucuteni-Tripolye culture - Aeneolithic Age
 
28. Fragment of design of a painted amphora with zoomorphic representations, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
28. Fragment of design of a painted amphora with zoomorphic representations, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture - Aeneolithic Age
 
29.Fragment of design of a painted amphora with zoomorphic representations, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
29.Fragment of design of a painted amphora with zoomorphic representations, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture  - Aeneolithic Age
 
30. Fragment of design of a painted amphora with zoomorphic representations, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
30. Fragment of design of a painted amphora with zoomorphic representations, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture  - Aeneolithic Age
 
31.Fragment of design of a painted amphora with the scene of a ritual dance, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
31.Fragment of design of a painted amphora with the scene of a ritual dance, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture  - Aeneolithic Age
 
32.Copper axe, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
32.Copper axe, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture  - Aeneolithic Age
 
33. Bone daggers, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
33. Bone daggers, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture  - Aeneolithic Age
 








Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age

  
  
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#Exhibit of the Month

Among the Greek mythological figures, there is a satyr (Ancient Greek: Σάτυρος), also called Silenus, a male spirit of nature and forest, known to be the companion of the gods Pan and Dionysus. Satyrs were imagined as dancing in the fields, drinking wine with Dionysus and chasing maenads and nymphs. According to the descriptions in myths, they had human-like upper part of the body and the horse-like or goat-like legs, and also a long and bushy tail. Gradually, animalistic features in the image of a satyr recede, their lower limbs become human (legs, not hooves). The satyr Marsyas (Μάρσιας) plays a special role in Greek legends. Sometimes the god Pan is depicted in the guise of a satyr...

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