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#Exhibit of the Month

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In the culture of many peoples from ancient times (and to the present day), mirrors have been given a special role in ritual practice, especially funerary ones. For many communities, mirrors, like metal objects in general, served to protect against evil spirits. Mirrors had a dual purpose - a utilitarian one, as a toilet item, and ritual, as an attribute of a magical rite. The latter is explained by the fact that in the ideas of many peoples the soul of a person is connected to his reflection in a mirror or water. Being external to man, the "soul-reflection" is subject to various dangers.

Obviously, belief in the magical possibilities of mirrors is one of the reasons why the owners kept them closed in wooden, cloth, felt or leather cases and pouches. An expensive mirror was placed in the grave along with the deceased for fear that the soul of a living person reflected in it could be carried away by the spirit of the person passed away. On the other hand, to this day, many nations have a tradition of hanging all the mirrors if there is a dead person in the house, so as not to multiply death.

Metal mirrors are quite rare at the dawn of Scythian history, but over time, they were widely distributed in the Classical time or "Herodotus' Scythia" of the 5th-4th centuries BC. Then the mirror became one of the most important toilet items in Scythian burials. In the west of the Pontic steppes, at least 40 mirrors are known, made in Scythian or Greek workshops, 12 of them are stored in the collection of the National Museum of the History of Moldova.

One of the metal mirrors of Greek work was found on the left bank of the Dniester, near the Nikolskoe village, in the burial mound 14. It was found in a burial near a skull, and in addition to a mirror, 114 arrowheads and six golden fish-shaped plaques. The mirror was cast in bronze along with the handle. The mirror diameter is 16.5 cm, handle length with a round extension is 11.5 cm.

Although burial 1 of kurgan 14 was identified as male, 18-20 years old, mirrors are a marker of exclusively female burials. Such bronze mirrors with side handles appear in the middle of the 5th century BC but were most massively distributed during the last quarter of the 5th - the first half of the 4th century BC.

Virtual Tour


Chronological Axis


Aeneolithic Age

(late 5th millennium B.C. - early 3rd millennium B.C.)

The archaeological collections related to this period are the most representative ones. The development of material and spiritual culture testifies to the existence of different communities of farmers and nomadic cattle-breeders. Representatives of the Cucuteni-Tripolye culture inhabited the vast territory from the Carpathians to Dnieper for about 1,500 years (late 5th millennium B.C. – early 3rd millennium B.C.).

In the territory of the Republic of Moldova there are known more than 600 settlements of farmers, some of which were archaeologically investigated: Floresti, Rogojeni, Rusestii Noi, Radulenii Vechi, Petreni, Varvareuca, Brinzeni, etc. At this time there were first produced metal (copper) items. Tools made of bone and stone are predominant.  The earthenware collection is remarkable for the variety of vessels decorated with carving or painted in diverse ornamental styles. The ornamental compositions contain cosmologic scenes, astral symbols, fantastic animals, and anthropomorphic deities. The spiritual life of the communities is represented by an impressive collection of zoo- and anthropomorphic figurines.

At the same time in the south of the Prut-Dniester area there was spread the Bolgrad-Aldeni culture represented by an impressive material.

Cattle-breeding tribes from North-Pontic steppes, which are represented here by the archaeological monuments of the Suvorovo-Novodanilovca and Cernavoda type, played an important part in the history of Aeneolithic communities. The stages of transition from the Aeneolithic to the Bronze Age in the Prut-Dniester area are represented by the archaeological cultures like the Brinzeni, Gordinesti, and Usatovo ones, which have harmoniously combined elements of the Cucuteni civilization and features of the cultures of the North-Pontic cattle-breeders identified with the ancient Indo-Europeans.

1.Vessel, the Bolgrad-Aldeni culture
 
1.Vessel, the Bolgrad-Aldeni culture - Aeneolithic Age
 
2.Vessel, the Bolgrad-Aldeni culture
 
2.Vessel, the Bolgrad-Aldeni culture - Aeneolithic Age
 
3.Female figurine of “Orante” type, the Bolgrad-Aldeni culture
 
3.Female figurine of “Orante” type, the Bolgrad-Aldeni culture - Aeneolithic Age
 
4.Painted amphora with zoomorphic representations, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
4.Painted amphora with zoomorphic representations, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture - Aeneolithic Age
 
5.Head of anthropomorphic figurine representing a slipping female deity, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
5.Head of anthropomorphic figurine representing a slipping female deity, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture - Aeneolithic Age
 
6.Anthropomorphic top of lid representing male deity, the Early or the Middle Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
6.Anthropomorphic top of lid representing male deity, the Early or the Middle Cucuteni-Tripolye culture  - Aeneolithic Age
 
7. Female figurine sitting on the zoomorphic “throne”, the Early Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
7.	Female figurine sitting on the zoomorphic “throne”, the Early Cucuteni-Tripolye culture  - Aeneolithic Age
 
8.Female figurine, the Early Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
8.Female figurine, the Early Cucuteni-Tripolye culture - Aeneolithic Age
 
9.Stemmed “fruit dish” vessel with lid, with incised and excised decoration, the Early Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
9.Stemmed “fruit dish” vessel with lid, with incised and excised decoration, the Early Cucuteni-Tripolye culture  - Aeneolithic Age
 
10.Stemmed “fruit dish” vessel with incised and excised decoration, the Early Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
10.Stemmed “fruit dish” vessel with incised and excised decoration, the Early Cucuteni-Tripolye culture  - Aeneolithic Age
 
11.Stemmed “fruit dish” vessel with painted design, the Middle Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
11.Stemmed “fruit dish” vessel with painted design, the Middle Cucuteni-Tripolye culture  - Aeneolithic Age
 
12.Painted anthropomorphic amphora with lid, the Middle Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
12.Painted anthropomorphic amphora with lid, the Middle Cucuteni-Tripolye culture  - Aeneolithic Age
 
13.Painted amphora with representation of the Great Goddess possessing animals, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
13.Painted amphora with representation of the Great Goddess possessing animals, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture - Aeneolithic Age
 
14.Female figurine, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
14.Female figurine, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture - Aeneolithic Age
 
15.Bowl with zoomorphic representations, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
15.Bowl with zoomorphic representations, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture - Aeneolithic Age
 
16.Painted pear-shaped vessel, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
16.Painted pear-shaped vessel, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture - Aeneolithic Age
 
17.Painted vessel, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
17.Painted vessel, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture - Aeneolithic Age
 
18.Female figurines, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
18.Female figurines, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture - Aeneolithic Age
 
19.Female figurines, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
19.Female figurines, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture - Aeneolithic Age
 
20.Painted amphora, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
20.Painted amphora, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture - Aeneolithic Age
 
21. Copper items, the Middle Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
21. Copper items, the Middle Cucuteni-Tripolye culture - Aeneolithic Age
 
22. Painted dishes and bowls, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
22. Painted dishes and bowls, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture - Aeneolithic Age
 
23.Painted vessels, the Middle Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
23.Painted vessels, the Middle Cucuteni-Tripolye culture - Aeneolithic Age
 
24.Binocular vessel, the Middle Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
24.Binocular vessel, the Middle Cucuteni-Tripolye culture - Aeneolithic Age
 
25.Figurine of a bull, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
25.Figurine of a bull, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture - Aeneolithic Age
 
26. Painted vessels: lidded anthropomorphic amphora representing a female deity and bowl, the Middle Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
26. Painted vessels: lidded anthropomorphic amphora representing a female deity and bowl, the Middle Cucuteni-Tripolye culture - Aeneolithic Age
 
27. Binocular vessel, the Middle Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
27. Binocular vessel, the Middle Cucuteni-Tripolye culture - Aeneolithic Age
 
28. Fragment of design of a painted amphora with zoomorphic representations, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
28. Fragment of design of a painted amphora with zoomorphic representations, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture - Aeneolithic Age
 
29.Fragment of design of a painted amphora with zoomorphic representations, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
29.Fragment of design of a painted amphora with zoomorphic representations, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture  - Aeneolithic Age
 
30. Fragment of design of a painted amphora with zoomorphic representations, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
30. Fragment of design of a painted amphora with zoomorphic representations, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture  - Aeneolithic Age
 
31.Fragment of design of a painted amphora with the scene of a ritual dance, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
31.Fragment of design of a painted amphora with the scene of a ritual dance, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture  - Aeneolithic Age
 
32.Copper axe, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
32.Copper axe, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture  - Aeneolithic Age
 
33. Bone daggers, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture
 
33. Bone daggers, the Late Cucuteni-Tripolye culture  - Aeneolithic Age
 








Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age
  
  

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#Exhibit of the Month

In the culture of many peoples from ancient times (and to the present day), mirrors have been given a special role in ritual practice, especially funerary ones. For many communities, mirrors, like metal objects in general, served to protect against evil spirits. Mirrors had a dual purpose - a utilitarian one, as a toilet item, and ritual, as an attribute of a magical rite. The latter is explained by the fact that in the ideas of many peoples the soul of a person is connected to his reflection in a mirror or water. Being external to man, the "soul-reflection" is subject to various dangers.Obviously, belief in the magical possibilities of mirrors is one of the reasons why the owners kept them closed in wooden, cloth, felt or leather cases and pouches. An expensive mirror was placed in the grave along with the deceased for fear that the soul of a living person reflected in it could be carried away by the spirit of the person passed away. On the other hand, to this day, many nations have a tradition of hanging all the mirrors if there is a dead person in the house, so as not to multiply death....

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2023 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2023 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

menu
The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2023 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC