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The word pafta is of Turkish origin and is used in almost identical forms in Romanian, Greek, Bulgarian, and Serbian languages and some Aromanian dialects, denoting clothing accessories of a functional and decorative use, which secure or catch one's girdle, sash or belt.
Such buckles are accessories of ceremonial and everyday costumes, they were worn by both prince's courtiers and commoners in the Romanian principalities during the reign of the Phanariots, when the influence of Greek culture increased.

Throughout the Balkan Peninsula, silversmiths' workshops produced buckles very different in size, alloys, technique, style, and decoration. Turkish buckles were usually lace-like, often gilded, with many stones, emphasizing opulence. At the Bulgarians and Aromanians, they are simpler, but have a specific model and symbolism. Greek buckles are mostly silver, elegantly shaped, decorated with corals and small coins. The difference between the West and the East in this regard lies in the ability of the Turks to combine other materials with precious stones. Another feature is the predominance of floral motifs over the representations of animals and birds. The peoples under Ottoman rule assimilated these features and integrated them into their own cultures.

The buckles exhibited testify to the presence of a jewelry workshop in the town of Orhei in Bessarabia in the second half of the 19th century, and the quality of workmanship, the fine processing of the details, the complex composition denote the mastery and skill of the craftsmen.

Similar in style, these three buckles are two-piece, germinating seed-shaped, with strongly pronounced tips. The border is decorated with a garland motif, which circumscribes floral decorative elements. Hook and loop fastening is covered with a decorative button. On the reverse side, both sides are equipped with two plus two vertical straps with which the belt was attached.

The buckles are made of silver, as evidenced by the metal fineness hallmark stamp "84", applied according to the regulations on both parts of the buckle, and the hallmark stamp of the jewelry workshop in Orhei - the symbol of oak in a stylized shield. The quality of the metal and workmanship is also certified by the stamp of the assayer, moreover, one of the buckles was expertized by Dmitry Tiunov and has a "ДТ" (DT) stamp on it. On both parts of the buckle, the year of manufacture 1858 and the stamp of the assayer "ПН" (PN) are stamped. The stamp on the second buckle, the initials "МИ" (MI), indicates only the craftsman who made the product. The third buckle, made in the Orhei workshop, does not have the hallmark stamps required by law on the back side, but retains the same hallmarks stamped on the side of the products: the symbol of oak, the metal fineness hallmark stamp "84", the year of manufacture - 1871, and the initials of the assayer "КС" (KS), identified as Klim Sergeev, who worked from 1868 to 1871.

Between the 1840s and 1870s, wearing buckles became obsolete, and women's fashion completely adopted Western cuts and colors. These accessories came back into fashion around 1870 thanks to Princess Elisabeth, the future Queen of Romania. She introduced at court the fashion for the Romanian national costume, decorated with buckles. Her example was followed by the female elite of that time until the eve of the First World War. And her successor, Queen Maria, with her usual elegance and refinement, continued this fashionable tradition with in the interwar period.

Virtual Tour


Exhibitions

“Colors of Orthodoxy. Poland”

March 14 - April 30, 2022

Although the dominant religion in Poland is Catholicism, adherents of the Orthodox and Greek Catholic Church have lived in Polish territory for centuries. Some of their traditions and rich heritage are presented in the exhibition "The Colors of Orthodoxy. Poland", which can be seen from March 14 to April 30, 2022 at the National Museum of History of Moldova, Chisinau.

The process of Christianization of the Slavs, which began simultaneously with the mission of Saints Cyril and Methodius, took place when the Slavs came into contact with Byzantine culture. Although the Piasts, the first rulers of the Polish territory, converted to Western Christianity in 966, the mission of the two saints spread to the Eastern Slavic territories, including Cherven Cities, Wistulans' state, the territory between the Vistula and Bug rivers. Until the 14th century, Chełm, Podlaskie Voivodeship and the area between the Vistula and Bug rivers were mainly under Russian influence.

The political and cultural role of the Orthodox Church in the Polish territories increased due to the territorial expansion of the Piast dynasty to the east. The ongoing struggles in the eastern territories, as well as the repeated change of borders, have led to the formation of a population with different religions and cultures. Although the number of followers of the Orthodox religion increased significantly, the Orthodox Church was only a tolerated denomination compared to the dominant Roman Catholic Church.

The situation changed considerably with the Union of Brest in 1596 between the Roman Catholic Church and some of the bishops of the Orthodox Church, who recognized the authority of the Pope. Until the beginning of the 18th century, this union, which led to the creation of the Greek Catholic (Uniate) Church, encompassed almost the entire structure of the Western Church on Polish territory (however, the Jabłeczna Monastery remained Orthodox throughout its existence).

After the partition of Poland (in 1772, 1793, 1795), the Greek Catholic Church survived in the territories under Austrian occupation, being, in turn, liquidated in several stages in the territories occupied by the Russians.

On the territory of Poland, revived in 1918, the Orthodox Church faced distrust from the state authorities and association with Russian oppression. In 1924, it received the status of an autocephalous church, but was not recognized by the Russian Church, which granted it the right to autocephaly only after the World War II. The number of believers in the Polish Autocephalous Church declined sharply after World War II as a result of the resettlement of the Ukrainian population in the USSR in 1944 and the resettlement of Poles from the Eastern Bordering Areas to the so-called Restored Territories, that is, to modern western Poland.

According to the latest 2011 census, about 190,000 Orthodox and Greek Catholics live in Poland, or about 0.5% of the country's total population.

Despite the relatively small number of believers, the Orthodox Church is an important part of Polish culture. In some parts of the country (especially in the north-east and south-east), members of the Orthodox Church and the Uniate Church make up the majority of the population or an important part of it (for example in the Podlaskie or Polesie regions).

The beauty of nature, ethnic and cultural diversity, as well as the rich history of these lands attract tourists. Poland also has valuable monuments associated with Eastern churches, and eight wooden churches in the Subcarpathian region are on the UNESCO World Heritage List.

The exhibition "Colors of Orthodoxy. Poland" can be seen at the National Museum of History of Moldova, Chisinau, on the fence from 31 August 1989 Street, 121A, from March 14 to April 30, 2022.



 




Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age

  
  
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#Exhibit of the Month

The word pafta is of Turkish origin and is used in almost identical forms in Romanian, Greek, Bulgarian, and Serbian languages and some Aromanian dialects, denoting clothing accessories of a functional and decorative use, which secure or catch one's girdle, sash or belt...

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC