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#Exhibit of the Month

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Radio represents one of the outstanding technological achievements of human thought, which led to the emergence and development of the most powerful and popular means of mass communication. From its beginnings, radio broadcasting had immediate effects on the social, economic, military, but also on the cultural level.

Radio is the work of time, to which many scientists have contributed. Among the most important names we mention: the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell, who predicted, in 1860, the existence of radio waves; the German physicist Heinrich Rudolph Hertz, who demonstrated that rapid variations in electric current could be projected into space as radio waves; the American inventor of Croatian origin Nicola Tesla, who, in 1891, built the theoretical model of the device that produced electromagnetic cycles.

Those who are primarily credited with this discovery - the Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi and the Russian physicist Alexander Popov - did nothing more than synthesize or weave together floating ideas, so no one has intellectual authorship, which does not exclude their rights conferred by patents and glory.

For more than 120 years, radio has been telling stories, saving lives, delivering news, educating generations, providing a means of recreation, shaping a society's experience of diversity. As a sign of appreciation for this powerful vector of information and culture, UNESCO instituted, in 2012, a special holiday, World Radio Day, which is celebrated worldwide on February 13.

The advent of sound broadcasting propelled the development of radio technology. Gradually, starting in 1920, the need for collective auditions determined the manufacture of the first loudspeakers based on the principle of electromagnetic induction, which had a diaphragm or a diffuser cone. Moved by a metal paddle, they actuated a large mass of air, thus producing loud sounds. Overcoming the evolutionary framework, with all the inherent difficulties, the radio was continuously perfected, with predilection after the invention of radio lamps and transistors, arriving at the construction of increasingly complex devices.

The National Museum of History of Moldova conserves and uses about 120 radio receivers with historical, technical and memorial value, manufactured between 1934 and the beginning of the 21st century in various countries. The radio sets in the museum heritage are of interest for the history of science and technology, some of them standing out as reference pieces for the evolution of means of communication.

From the point of view of the principle of operation, the radios owned by the museum are direct-amplified, reactive and superheterodyne. From a categorical point of view, the museum's radio technical fund is made up of: 36 radio equipment, 17 radio receivers with electronic tubes and 68 transistorized radio receivers. This month, as part of the "Exhibit of the Month" series, we bring to the public's attention two stationary radio receivers with electronic tubes, Telefunken and Philips, of great historical and technical value, they laid the foundations for the constitution of the museum's collection of radio devices.

Telefunken radio receiver, model Koncert Trial, was manufactured at the Radiotechna enterprise in Prague-Prelouc, Czechoslovakia, between 1934 and 1935. It is a superheterodyne device, in a Bakelite case. Technical characteristics: 4 electronic tubes - REN904, REN904, RENS1374S and RGN564; the wave ranges - UL (long waves), UM (medium waves) and US (short waves); dimensions - 290x355x175 mm; power supply - 110/240 V; speaker - permanently dynamic.

Philips radio receiver, model 36U, was manufactured in 1943 at the Philips workshop in Hungary (which operated from 1931 to 1949). It is a superheterodyne device, in a bakelite case. Technical characteristics: 4 electronic tubes - UCH21, UCH21, UBL21 and UY21; wave ranges: UL (long waves) and US (short waves); dimensions: 250x170x130 mm; power supply: 110/150/220 V, weight: 2.5 kg; speaker - permanently dynamic.

Virtual Tour


Exhibitions

“The Architecture of Independence in Central Europe”

1-28 February, 2023

On February 1st, 2023, at 12:00, the National Museum of History of Moldova invites you to the opening of the Architecture of Independence in Central Europe" exhibition.

The end of the World War I in 1918 radically changed the geopolitical image of Central Europe. It brought freedom to many nations, while for others it meant profound changes to the existing framework of political and economic life. War damage, shifting borders and the clash with new political realities left their mark on the development of culture and the shape of architecture in this part of the continent in the following decades. You will discover how Bucharest, Warsaw, Tallinn, Eforie Nord and Chernivtsi have changed by reading the Romanian version of the exhibition "Independence Architecture in Central Europe" prepared by the Polish Institute in Bucharest. It can be viewed on the fence of the National Museum of History of Moldova in Chisinau from February 1 to February 28, 2023.

"It was a short but very dynamic period. A mosaic of new countries emerged on the map of Central Europe. A dream that formed after the tragedy of the First World War was to regain stability, to introduce order into the world torn apart, to find a new system for nations that finally gained their desired subjectivity" - says Łukasz Galusek, the deputy director for programme policy at the ICC and one of the curators of the exhibition. "Now, over a one hundred years later, we can look back at the moment when this new order was formed; for many, this was a time to celebrate, for others this date still provokes reflections. We look at our part of the continent in a broad horizon, trying to embrace a wide spectrum of changes happening at the time, which were reflected in space, urban planning, and architecture".

The titular architecture of independence should be understood more broadly than individual buildings. Its goal was to mark its subjectivity in the landscape of regions and cities, to search for new models of national iconography, to create opportunities for social development, as well as create an idea of a new man.

Political changes cast former lively metropolises into oblivion, while provincial towns became capitals of new states or regions. The state's authority was expressed by the monumental forms of architecture that housed its institutions - newly built or redesigned - as well as of churches and public spaces that offered scenography for the theatre of power. It was also a moment of particularly powerful presence of conflicts of memory and the problem of dissonant and unwanted heritage. Independence meant not only the creation of new national symbols, but also the destruction of marks of foreign domination and their oblivion from collective memory. Success was enjoyed by modernism, which was developed to serve the poorest groups of society (e.g., new housing estates in Vienna, Bratislava, and Warsaw), but in time gained a new, luxurious form.

After the Great War, a new idea of humanity was born. One of the most interesting visions of the man of the future was conceived in Central Europe. In 1920, a Czech writer Karel Čapek published his drama R.U.R. (Rossumovi Univerzální Roboti), with robots, biological mutants, as protagonists who rebel against people and take control over the world. Čapek's work prepared the ground for science-fiction literature, with its still resounding echo in the commonly used word ROBOT (from the old Slavic "rob" or "rab" meaning slave or servant).

The man of the future was envisioned as healthy and fit, while his body was to resemble a machine. Health and hygiene, sports and active leisure were considered factors of social and personal change as well as important vehicles of consolidation of new societies. This dynamic transformation was well illustrated by the evolution of spas and sports facilities. Sports halls, racing tracks, swimming pools, and stadiums able to accommodate thousands of viewers were a visible sign of modernisation and a perfect tool for propagandist messages communicated by the newly emerged states.

This multimedia exhibition was addressed to art viewers without any age restrictions, both to the lovers and scholars of architectural history and applied arts, as well as to those interested in cultural and social changes of the early 20th century.

The makers of this exhibition wished to show a multi-layered nature of the subject matter through the presentation of archive architecture designs, original photographs from the period, films, as well as visualisations and models of architecture designed into the 1920s and ‘30s. Maps illustrating dynamically shifting borders of countries that regained independence will be shown as an integral part of the exhibition.

The exhibition came with a series of related lectures titled 1918. The culture of new Europe, offering introduction to the history and culture of Central European countries in the interwar period, as well as an extensive programme of educational events addressed to all age groups.

Curators: Łukasz Galusek, dr Żanna Komar, Helena Postawka-Lech, dr Michał Wiśniewski, Natalia Żak.

Financed by the polish Ministry of Culture and National Heritage as part of the Multiannual Programme NIEPODLEGŁA 2017-2022.


 




Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age
  
  

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#Exhibit of the Month

Radio represents one of the outstanding technological achievements of human thought, which led to the emergence and development of the most powerful and popular means of mass communication. From its beginnings, radio broadcasting had immediate effects on the social, economic, military, but also on the cultural level....

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2023 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2023 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2023 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC