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National Museum of History of Moldova
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#Exhibit of the Month

From the early days of Christianity, the cross meant not only an instrument of torture, but also a symbol of victory over death, a symbol of salvation. The object is made of silver, having the shape of a Byzantine cross with trapezoidal edges of the arms. The side arms and the one at the bottom seem to be turned inside a vessel (chalice (?)) with the trapezoidal "foot". The arms of the cross and of the "chalice" were ended with a decorative element in the shape of a sphere (drop). The cross has a decoration in relief, executed in the technique of filigree and granulation, consisting of drops, double and triple cords, circles with a drop in the center, and trefoils (?). In the center of the cross, at the intersection of the arms, there is a round mount with a cord-like edge, in which the pomegranate fruit is located. However, the main decorative element is the images of four peacocks turned to the right, with a snake in the beak, arranged on all the arms of the cross. The image of the peacocks is rendered in an artistic way, and their tails are stylized in the shape of a palmette.
The peacock, originated from India, due to its luxurious fan-shaped tail, was considered a symbol of the Sun. In ancient Greece, they were considered the sacred birds of the goddess Hera, and in ancient Rome they were considered the sacred birds of the goddess Juno. In Kievan Rus', the peacock (the Firebird) also symbolized the Sun. In the West, the peacock was considered a snake killer, and the iridescent colors of its tail were attributed to its ability to turn snake venom into solar substance. Since snakes in Iranian symbolism were considered enemies of the sun, it was believed that the peacock killed snakes, in order to create "eyes" from their saliva, iridescent with a bronze-green and gold-blue color on the feathers of its tail. Due to the bright splendor of the male peacock's tail, it has been compared with immortal gods and, therefore, with immortality. Peacocks are known as an emblem of greatness, royal authority, spiritual superiority, ideal creation.

In the early period of Christianity, the peacock was a symbol of love, resurrection, immortality, beauty, eternity of the soul, the all-seeing eye of the Church, and the peacock feather was the emblem of Saint Barbara. The image of peacocks with snakes in their beaks on the cross is not at all accidental; it symbolizes the victory of Christ over evil.

On the back side of the cross, traces of fixing are preserved, probably of a pin (missing), so the object served as a brooch (fibula), which was probably attached to the fabric. The piece is presumably dated back to the 9th-12th centuries.

The object has the following dimensions: height - 125 mm; width - 86 mm; weight - 47 g.


 
National Museum of History of Moldova
 

Exhibitions

“War on the Dniester”

March 2 - 21, 2021

March 2, 2021 marks the 29th anniversary of the outbreak of armed conflict in the eastern districts of the Republic of Moldova, a conflict provoked by political adventurers and pro-imperialist revenge forces of the former Soviet empire.

Under the invented pretext of "defending Russia's southern borders", they encouraged Transnistrian separatism, armed paramilitary guards, and sent thousands of mercenary Cossacks, criminals released from prisons, tanks, and Alazan missiles, hoping that with their help they will be able to revive the lost empire.

On March 2, 1992, when the President of the Republic of Moldova Mircea Snegur delivered, in the plenary session of the UN General Assembly, the speech of thanks on the occasion of the reception of the Republic of Moldova in the United Nations, groups of guards and Cossacks armed with submachine guns and armored vehicles stormed the headquarters of the Dubăsari district police station. There were the first fallen. To the south, in Vulcăneşti, another armed group attacks the district police headquarters. The same happens, simultaneously, in Tighina, Grigoriopol and Cocieri... Among the first to fall on duty then are: lieutenant-colonel Mihai Moraru, commissioner of the Hânceşti district police station; Iurie Bodiu, Valentin Slobozenco, Tudor Buga, Sergiu Ostaf, Vitalie Păvăluc, Victor Lavrentsov, Russian of nationality, a native of Tighina; Boris Dovgani from Pârâta, Serghei Culaţchi, the son-in-law of the brave fighter General Anton Gămurari... The lifeless bodies of Sergeant V. Purice and driver N. Galben from Tighina were taken from the waters of the Dniester.

Thus, the political conflict in the Dniester area degenerated into a real fratricidal war. Peaceful people were being attacked, entire villages were being held under Cossack fire, and more than 50,000 peaceful inhabitants of the Dniester area were forced to leave their homes, saving themselves from the scourge of war.

The ordeal begun in Dubăsari left behind hundreds of dead and crippled, orphans, widows, mothers with souls hardened by grief; it caused immeasurable material damage and loss on both banks of the Dniester.

More detailed sketches and chronicles of those dramatic events can be found in various sources: albums, monographs, collections of documents, memoirs, newspaper reports.

The commemorative exhibition "War on the Dniester" is also an attempt to reconstruct the reality of the Dniester tragedy.

It was conceived as a tribute to all participants in the struggles for the defense of the integrity and independence of the Republic of Moldova and, first of all, to those who sacrificed their lives on the altar of freedom of the Fatherland.

The exhibition brings together shocking images made in the conflict area by photojournalists T. Iovu, N. Pojoga, M. Vengher, A. Mardare, S. Voronin, T. Anghel, and others. The images reconstruct the ordeal that Moldavian defenders went through in the battles of Dubăsari and Tighina, on the plateaus of Cocieri and Coşniţa, immortalized the heroism and manhood of Moldavian police and volunteers, the hardships and humiliations of war, destroyed families, houses and villages, faces of women and children contorted by the pain of losing loved ones.

A special section of the exhibition is dedicated to the fallen fighters in defense of the independence and integrity of the Republic of Moldova.

The exhibition "War on the Dniester" was organized on the occasion of the 29th anniversary of the outbreak of the armed conflict on the Dniester and is dedicated to all defenders of the integrity and independence of the Republic of Moldova.



 




Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age

  
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#Exhibit of the Month

From the early days of Christianity, the cross meant not only an instrument of torture, but also a symbol of victory over death, a symbol of salvation. The object is made of silver, having the shape of a Byzantine cross with trapezoidal edges of the arms. The side arms and the one at the bottom seem to be turned inside a vessel (chalice (?)) with the trapezoidal "foot". The arms of the cross and of the "chalice" were ended with a decorative element in the shape of a sphere (drop). The cross has a decoration in relief, executed in the technique of filigree and granulation, consisting of drops, double and triple cords, circles with a drop in the center, and trefoils (?). In the center of the cross, at the intersection of the arms, there is a round mount with a cord-like edge, in which the pomegranate fruit is located...

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