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#Exhibit of the Month

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The exposed object, an "askos" type ceramic vessel, comes from the tumulus necropolis near the village of Ciumai, Taraclia district. The vessel was discovered in 2015 in a cenotaph tomb attributed to the Jamnaja culture, dated to the early Bronze Age (ca. 3300-2600 BC).

The vessel, with an obviously asymmetrical configuration, is hand-moulded from quality clay paste, having a smooth brown surface with gray spots. The body of the vessel is provided with a pronounced protrusion and a truncated neck with a wider opening towards the mouth. The vessel has a stem and is ornamented with three pairs of symmetrically placed relief appliqués. The height of the bowl is 15.5 cm, the diameter of the mouth is 11.4 cm, the diameter of the body is 15 cm and the diameter of the base is 7.5 cm. Such vessels in the archaeological literature are known as "askos" vessels, the respective term being of ancient Greek origin, denoting one of the primitive containers of the period - the bellows made of animal skin.

In prehistoric times, among some peoples, the bellows was transposed into ceramics, in these cases the basic features of the archaic leather vessel were preserved, acquiring a prominent convex shape with a stem and a flat bottom. From the original appearance of the bellows, the asymmetric mouth corresponding to the animal's neck has been preserved, and sometimes three or four legs, corresponding to the appendages of the flayed skin from the animal's legs. These vessels have lost their original zoomorphic character, entering as a new form in the inventory of Neo-Eneolithic ceramics. The first vessels of this type are attested in Greece, in the early Neolithic (ca. 5000-4500 BC) having the shape of cups or cups. In the Neo-Eneolithic Carpatho-Balkan cultures, the type of Aegean askos of short or tall form, with or without legs and with a handle, is found. Less often, they are provided with two mouths (one for filling and one for emptying) or they are off-center and provided with strangely shaped mouths. In the space between the Carpathians and the Dnieper, only tall forms of simple askos, without zoomorphic elements, are known. Askos-type vessels are present in various prehistoric cultures, especially in Southeast Europe and Anatolia.

Being often discovered in association with cult inventory, askos vessels could be an important indicator of use in religious ritual practices. Along with the zoomorphic, anthropomorphic and rhyton-type vessels (roughly conical container from which, in some ceremonies, liquids were drunk or poured), the askos were included in the category of vessels intended for worship, being related to libations (ritual act that consisted of tasting and then pouring a cup of wine, milk, etc. as homage to the deity).

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#Exhibit of the Month

February 2023

Radio receivers: Telefunken and Philips

Radio represents one of the outstanding technological achievements of human thought, which led to the emergence and development of the most powerful and popular means of mass communication. From its beginnings, radio broadcasting had immediate effects on the social, economic, military, but also on the cultural level.

Radio is the work of time, to which many scientists have contributed. Among the most important names we mention: the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell, who predicted, in 1860, the existence of radio waves; the German physicist Heinrich Rudolph Hertz, who demonstrated that rapid variations in electric current could be projected into space as radio waves; the American inventor of Croatian origin Nicola Tesla, who, in 1891, built the theoretical model of the device that produced electromagnetic cycles.

Those who are primarily credited with this discovery - the Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi and the Russian physicist Alexander Popov - did nothing more than synthesize or weave together floating ideas, so no one has intellectual authorship, which does not exclude their rights conferred by patents and glory.

For more than 120 years, radio has been telling stories, saving lives, delivering news, educating generations, providing a means of recreation, shaping a society's experience of diversity. As a sign of appreciation for this powerful vector of information and culture, UNESCO instituted, in 2012, a special holiday, World Radio Day, which is celebrated worldwide on February 13.

The advent of sound broadcasting propelled the development of radio technology. Gradually, starting in 1920, the need for collective auditions determined the manufacture of the first loudspeakers based on the principle of electromagnetic induction, which had a diaphragm or a diffuser cone. Moved by a metal paddle, they actuated a large mass of air, thus producing loud sounds. Overcoming the evolutionary framework, with all the inherent difficulties, the radio was continuously perfected, with predilection after the invention of radio lamps and transistors, arriving at the construction of increasingly complex devices.

The National Museum of History of Moldova conserves and uses about 120 radio receivers with historical, technical and memorial value, manufactured between 1934 and the beginning of the 21st century in various countries. The radio sets in the museum heritage are of interest for the history of science and technology, some of them standing out as reference pieces for the evolution of means of communication.

From the point of view of the principle of operation, the radios owned by the museum are direct-amplified, reactive and superheterodyne. From a categorical point of view, the museum's radio technical fund is made up of: 36 radio equipment, 17 radio receivers with electronic tubes and 68 transistorized radio receivers. This month, as part of the "Exhibit of the Month" series, we bring to the public's attention two stationary radio receivers with electronic tubes, Telefunken and Philips, of great historical and technical value, they laid the foundations for the constitution of the museum's collection of radio devices.

Telefunken radio receiver, model Koncert Trial, was manufactured at the Radiotechna enterprise in Prague-Prelouc, Czechoslovakia, between 1934 and 1935. It is a superheterodyne device, in a Bakelite case. Technical characteristics: 4 electronic tubes - REN904, REN904, RENS1374S and RGN564; the wave ranges - UL (long waves), UM (medium waves) and US (short waves); dimensions - 290x355x175 mm; power supply - 110/240 V; speaker - permanently dynamic.

Philips radio receiver, model 36U, was manufactured in 1943 at the Philips workshop in Hungary (which operated from 1931 to 1949). It is a superheterodyne device, in a bakelite case. Technical characteristics: 4 electronic tubes - UCH21, UCH21, UBL21 and UY21; wave ranges: UL (long waves) and US (short waves); dimensions: 250x170x130 mm; power supply: 110/150/220 V, weight: 2.5 kg; speaker - permanently dynamic.



 

 


Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age
  
  

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#Exhibit of the Month

The exposed object, an "askos" type ceramic vessel, comes from the tumulus necropolis near the village of Ciumai, Taraclia district. The vessel was discovered in 2015 in a cenotaph tomb attributed to the Jamnaja culture, dated to the early Bronze Age (ca. 3300-2600 BC)...

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC