With the establishment of the Soviet regime after the territorial abduction, the Red Terror broke out in Bessarabia. Starting from June 28, 1940, on the territory of Bessarabia, then of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic (August 2, 1940), state bodies carried out a series of mass political repressions - under the pretext of political, social, religious and national reasons - in the form of deprivation of freedom, deportation, expulsion and other coercive measures. The first victims of this terror were the national elites: mayors, teachers, judges, lawyers, officials, former members of the Council of the Country, accused of "anti-Sovietism", "counter-revolutionary activity", belonging to political parties in Romania, etc. They were the target of the first arrests and imprisonments of the Soviet repression organs. Later, from 1941, the deportations of the native population to Siberia and to labor correction camps followed, the deportations of the civilian population from July 5-6, 1949, as well as those from April 1, 1951. According to the data of the Commission for the Study and Assessment of the Totalitarian Communist Regime in the Republic Moldova, established on January 14, 2010, the number of victims deported and subjected to repressions in the years 1929-1951 was assessed at over 90 thousand people. In a barbaric way, the repression bodies also attacked the participants and supporters of the resistance movement in the SSR, considering them state criminals, traitors, bandits, robbers. Leaders of resistance organizations were usually sentenced to capital punishment by firing squad, and active members to 25 years in prison, serving their sentences in labor camps and prisons. The territory of the Soviet empire was littered with a hideous network of correctional labor camps and prisons called the GULAG. Millions of people were imprisoned in the GULAG system of the Soviet Union, many of them remained forever in the lands of Siberia, in mass graves and cemeteries without crosses. Most of the camps were correctional labor colonies, where inmates were subjected to labor in mines or in the construction of roads, canals, railways or buildings. Prisoners worked under threat of starvation or execution. Tens of thousands died each year from grueling work, unbearable conditions, summary executions and inadequate food.
A shocking testimony of the Soviet gulag is the exhibit "Political Detainee's Coat", displayed in this showcase. Museum piece - unique, it was purchased from the former political prisoner Vasile Cojocaru, domiciled in the city of Chisinau. It entered the heritage in 1995, during a period of intense activity of the museum's collaborators regarding the collection of pieces with the theme of communist repression.
Vasile Cojocaru was born in 1926, in the village of Chioselia Mică, Baimaclia district (currently, Cantemir district). On June 16, 1951, he was sentenced to 25 years' imprisonment by the Military Court of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the SSR, according to article 54-1 (a) of the criminal code of the Ukrainian SSR - "treason", and escorted in a special camp in Kazakhstan, with prohibitions on rights and confiscation of property. Obviously, we ask ourselves the question: What guilt is hidden under this accusation of "traitor to the fatherland", which crippled his whole life?
In July 1941, his father, Cojocaru Petru Grigore, born in 1886, was arrested and qualified as an "enemy of the people" (he was a member of the National Peasant Party), all his wealth being confiscated. On August 15, 1942, as a "dangerous social element", he is imprisoned in the correctional camp in the city of Mariinsk, Kemerovo region, where he dies under unclear circumstances, most likely he was executed. Vasile, 14 years old, and his mother were left on the roads, without means of subsistence. Eventually, the house is returned to them and they start a new household. But in 1944 he was drafted into the Soviet Army and sent to the front line of the 2nd Belorussian Front, where he was wounded twice, becoming a war invalid, 2nd degree. Returning home in 1948, he found his mother on the road and ill. He dares to ask the authorities for part of the confiscated wealth, to which he receives a threat - that he will be sent in the footsteps of his father. For three years he was persecuted for this "daring", as in 1951, although he defended the Bolshevik country at the cost of his health, he was arrested and convicted. Here, in fact, is what is hidden under this accusation of "treason", imputed to this citizen. In 1956, he was released from detention and sent to Armenia, the city of Yerevan, the place of residence indicated by the camp authorities. For many years in a row he was pursued by the security organs, being far from home, as political prisoners were forbidden to return to their place of residence. Come home later. Through the certificate of 28.02.1992, issued by the Prosecutor's Office of the Republic of Moldova, he is rehabilitated at and restored to rights. On July 25, 1991, his father was also rehabilitated.
The clothes on display - the waistcoat and trousers - are part of the prisoners' summer clothes, which also included a round cap, which the museum does not have. They are made of thick cotton fabric. The vest has long sleeves, collar, closes with four buttons, having two patch pockets on the sides. The pants close with buttons, have two side pockets. On both pieces is applied the number "CEE 893" - the holder code of Vasile Cojocaru. Three capital letters and three numbers are written in black paint on a piece of white cloth. The prisoner's number was applied in four places on the coat. One number was applied to the cap, another - to the back of the waistcoat, the third - near the heart, and the fourth - to the trousers, above the right or left knee. These four places, in fact, were also considered as sighting targets, in case the prisoner escaped. The number also applied to prisoners' winter clothes (down jackets, padded trousers, hats). As for footwear, the prisoners wore - in spring, summer and autumn - a kind of large galoshes made of rubberized fabric, less often, kirza boots, and in winter - felt. Usually, new arrivals were given second-hand clothes - old stuff with a terrible smell.
The exhibit has an indisputable museographic value. It gives the public the opportunity to see and understand the consequences of the establishment of the communist totalitarian regime in the SSR. By exhibiting it, we pay tribute to all the victims of the Red Terror in Bessarabia, on the eve of June 13 and July 5-6 - days when the two waves of deportations of our natives took place.
• Nicolae Răileanu, Mariana Bălan, Programe de cercetare în domeniul istoriei, artelor și științelor oferite de Smithsonian Institution din SUA (Research Programs of the Smithsonian Institution (USA) in the Fields of History, Arts, and Science) • Elena Prus, Muzealizarea lumii în contextul reurbanizații și mondializării (Museum Transformation of the World in the Context of Urbanisation and Globalisation) • Lucia Tonu, Ecomuzeul - o formă nouă de organizare și recepționare a imaginii din muzeu (Ecomuseum: New Form of Organization and Perception of a Museum Image)
II. Arheologie și istorie (Archaeology and history)
• Maher Wanli, Industria lamelară a nivelului 3-a de locuire musteriană din grota Trinca l (Lamellar Industry of the Stratum 3a of the Site from Grotto Trinka l) • Ilie Borziac, Etapa timpurie a paleoliticului superior din spațiul Carpato-Nistrean. Cultura Brânzeni (Transitional Stage: Brânzeni Culture) • Alexandru Levinschi, Sergiu Covalenco, Ecaterina Abâzov, Fortificația getică Saharna-“La Revechin" - sistemul defensiv (The Getian Fortification of Saharna-“La Revechin”: The Defensive System) • Alexandru Levinschi, Despre un tip de amfore din sec. IV î.e.n. din fortificația Saharna-"La Revechin". (About a Type of Amphorae from the Fortification of Saharna-“La Revechin” (4lh century B.C.)) • Natalia Mateevici, Difuzarea amforelor grecești în interfluviul Siret-Prut în sec. VI înc. sec. II a. Chr. (Grecian Amphorae Diffusion between the Rivers of Siret and Prut in 6th - beginning of 2nd centuries B.C). • Nicolae Telnov, Vlad Vornic, Valeriu Bubulici, Serghei Kurceatov, Descoperiri arheologice din așezarea dacilor liberi de la Pruteni (Archaeological Discoveries from the Free Dacians' Settlement of Pruteni (Bălți District)) • Ion Hâncu, Pătrunderea și înrădăcinarea creștinismului în spațiul Pruto-Nistrean (Penetration and Establishment of Christianity in the Area between Rivers of Prut and Dniester) • Ion Chirtoagă, Din istoria ocupațiilor economice în țara Moldovei în sec. XIV-XVII (From the History of Economic Activities in Tara Moldovei in 14th - 17th Centuries) • Eduard Baidaus, Despre un adversar al unirii din 1600 - Voievodul Moldovei Ieremia Movilă (1595-1606) (About an Opponent of the Union of 1600: Ieremia Movila - the Voevode of Moldova (1595-1606)) • Ion Tentiuc, Repere istoriografice privind originea mănăstirii Hâncu (Historiograpical Notes Concerned the Hâncu Monastery Origin) • Nicolae Răileanu, Considerații privind crearea Ligii Sfinte și atitudinea domnitorilor români (Considerations Concerned the Creation of the Holy League and the Romanian Gospodars' Position) • Ion Dron, Transnistria: localități cu nume de origine antroponimică românească (Transnistria: Settlements with Names of Romanian Anthroponymic Origin) • Mihai Onilă, Hotarele moșiei satului Isacova, ținutul Orhei (sec. XIX) (Boundaries of the Village of Isacova Land) • Ludmila Velixar, Din istoria orașului Cahul (Pages from the History of Cahul) • Andrei Eșanu, „Descrierea Moldovei" a lui Dimitrie Cantemir în cultura rusă (Description of Moldova by Dimitrie Cantemir in Russian Culture) • Eugenia Borodac, Tamara Stamatov, Tehnici de decorare a porțelanului (Techniques of Porcelain Decoration) • Anatol Leșcu, Românii în componența trupelor rusești în l-a treime a secolului XIX (The Romanians in the Ranks of Russian Armed Forces (1sl third of 19lh century)) • Elena Ploșnița, Din activitatea culturală a mitropolitului G. Bănulescu-Bodoni (Metropolitan G. Bănulescu-Bodoni: Several Considerations) • Dinu Poștarencu, Instituția rezidentului plenipotențiar al Basarabiei (Establishment of Resident Plenipotentiary in Bessarabia) • Silvia Corlăteanu-Granciuc, Actele de identitate din Basarabia de la primele mențiuni documentare până în anul 1918 (History of Identity Cards in Bessarabia from the First Written Records to 1918) • Ludmila Năstase, Dinastia de arhitecți Bernardazzi (The Dynasty of Architects Bernardazzi) • Irina Gonciarova, Sigiliul "Secția chișinăuiană a Societății muzicale imperiale ruse" (sfârșitul sec. XIX - începutul sec. XX.) (A Seal of the Chișinău Department of the Russian Imperial Musical Society) • Lubovi Malahov, Foi volante editate de Frățimea Ortodoxă "Nașterea lui Hristos" din Chișinău (1899-1918) (Books Published by the Christmas Orthodox Brotherhood from Chișinău) • Lilia Zabolotnaia, Destinul unei familii (Some Pages from the History of the Dynasty of Tumarkins) • Ana Grițco, Societatea de binefacere Bessarabeț (The "Bessarabeț" Charitable Society) • Maria Danilov, Revizia Tipografiei Eparhiale la 1910 (The Eparchial Printing-House Inspection in 1910) • Diana Iepure, Instalarea Rețelelor telefonice în spațiul Basarabean la sfârșitul sec. XIX începutul sec. XX (Installation of Telephone Network in Bessarabia) • Ion Şpac, Revista "Arhivele Basarabiei" (1929-1938) (The Magazine "Arhivele Basarabiei" in 1929-1938) • Olga Şcipachin, Istoria unei promoții (From New Collections of the NationalMuseum of History of Moldova) • Elena Postică, Războiul informațional împotriva Republicii Moldova (cazul diferendului transnistrean) (The Informațional War Against the Republic of Moldova. Case Study: the Transnistrian Conflict) • Lubovi Reprințeva, Mărcile poștale din Republica Moldova (The Republic of Moldova Postage - Stamps) • Silviu Andrieș-Tabac, Stemele și drapelele orașelor Codru, Florești și Otaci (Arms and Flags of the Towns of Codru, Florești, and Otaci) • Liviu Vacarciuc, Istoria viței de vie (History of Vine)
III. Artă, învățământ, etnografie (Art, education, ethnography)
• Svetlana Reabțeva, Tezaurul Răducăneni (România) și cetățile circulare din spațiul Carpato-Nistrean (The Hoard of Răducăneni (România) and Ring-shaped Sites of Ancient Settlements of the Carpathian Mountains and the Dniester Area) • Svetlana Speranschi, Chipul Sf. Nicolae în iconografia ortodoxă (St. Nicolas's Iconography) • Emanuil Brihuneț, Biserica de lemn "Sf. Afanasie" din satul Etulia, Vulcănești (Wooden Church of St. Athanasius in the Village of Etulia) • Vlad D. Ghimpu, Catedrala înălțarea Domnului din Chișinău (1830) (The Ascension Cathedral in Chișinău (1830)) • Nicolae Crețu, Bibliotecile școlare în procesul instructiv din Basarabia în anii 1870-1918 (Role of School Libraries in Educațional Process in Bessarabia (1870-1918)) • Silvia Şărănuță, Textilele tradiționale basarabene în Interiorul casei țărănești (sec. XIX-XX) Bessarabian Traditional Textile Fabrics in Interior of Peasant House (19th-20th centuries) • Silvia Şărănuță, Traistele și desagii - textile tradiționale basarabene în sec. XIX-XX (Knapsacks and Bags: Traditional Textile Articles in 19th - 20th centuries) • Aurelia Cornețchi, Considerații privind istoria Liceului de fete Domnița Ileana din Bălți (Some Considerations Concerned the History of the Girls' Lyceum named after Princess Ileana) • Lilia Dragnev, Arta contemporană în Republica Moldova (Contemporary Art in the Republic of Moldova) • Adelaida Chiroșca, Ana Boldureanu, Monede comemorative contemporane moldovenești (Contemporary Moldavian Commemorative Coins)
IV. Personalități (Outstanding persons)
• Elena Pereteatcu, Teatrul a fost viața ei (A Theatre was Her Life: Centenary of Nina Masalischi) • Liviu Vacarciuc, Centenarul ilustrului viticultor basarabean academicianului Gherasim Constantinescu (Centenary of Outstanding Bessarabian Viticulturist Academician Gherasim Constantinescu) • Maria Evdochimov, Mihail Juraveli - renumit selecționar, creatorul unor noi soiuri de viță de vie în Moldova (Famous Moldavian Selectionist in Viticultura M. Zhuravel) • Vera Stăvilă, Academicianul Tadeuș Malinovski (Academician Tadeuș Malinovschi)
V. Omagieri (Homage)
• Nicolae Răileanu, O viață consacrată arheologiei Opera științifică a lui Nicolae Chetraru Life Dedicated tu Archeology (Nicolae Chetraru's Scientific Work) • Ilie Borziac, Rolul lui Nicolae Chetraru în studiul stațiunilor pluristratigrafice din grotele și peșterile Moldovei (N. Chetraru's Contribution to Study of Caves and Grottoes) • Anatolie David, Contribuția arheologului Nicolae Chetraru la cercetarea teriofaunei pleistocenului superior din Republica Moldova (Archaeologist N. Chetraru's Contribution to the Research of the Fauna of the Upper Pleistocene of Moldova) • Diana Iepure, Eugenia Borodac la cei 60 de ani • Tudor Arnăut, Profesorul Mircea Babeș la cei 60 de ani
VI. Viața științifica și recenzii (Scientific life and reviews)
• Vlad D. Ghimpu, A XXXV-a Sesiune Națională de Rapoarte arheologice din România (23-27 mai 2001) • Maria Danilov, Sesiunea de comunicări științifice. Milenii Tezaurizate. Creație și spiritualitate. Buzău, 2001 • Elena Postică, Conferință Internațională la Universitatea din Oradea • Natalia Mateevici, Conferința de arheologie a Universității din Odesa • Maria Neagu, Republica Moldova - România: un deceniu de relații complexe • Valentina Chirtoagă, Heimatbuch der Bessarabiendeutschen - o monografie despre comunitatea etno-religioasă a germanilor din Basarabia (Recenzie)
VII. Cronica muzeală (Museums' chronicle)
• Aurelia Cornețchi, Activitatea Muzeului Național de Istorie a Moldovei în anul 2001
With the establishment of the Soviet regime after the territorial abduction, the Red Terror broke out in Bessarabia. Starting from June 28, 1940, on the territory of Bessarabia, then of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic (August 2, 1940), state bodies carried out a series of mass political repressions - under the pretext of political, social, religious and national reasons - in the form of deprivation of freedom, deportation, expulsion and other coercive measures...