National Museum of History of Moldova
#Exhibit of the Month
From the early days of Christianity, the cross meant not only an instrument of torture, but also a symbol of victory over death, a symbol of salvation. The object is made of silver, having the shape of a Byzantine cross with trapezoidal edges of the arms. The side arms and the one at the bottom seem to be turned inside a vessel (chalice (?)) with the trapezoidal "foot". The arms of the cross and of the "chalice" were ended with a decorative element in the shape of a sphere (drop). The cross has a decoration in relief, executed in the technique of filigree and granulation, consisting of drops, double and triple cords, circles with a drop in the center, and trefoils (?). In the center of the cross, at the intersection of the arms, there is a round mount with a cord-like edge, in which the pomegranate fruit is located. However, the main decorative element is the images of four peacocks turned to the right, with a snake in the beak, arranged on all the arms of the cross. The image of the peacocks is rendered in an artistic way, and their tails are stylized in the shape of a palmette.
The peacock, originated from India, due to its luxurious fan-shaped tail, was considered a symbol of the Sun. In ancient Greece, they were considered the sacred birds of the goddess Hera, and in ancient Rome they were considered the sacred birds of the goddess Juno. In Kievan Rus', the peacock (the Firebird) also symbolized the Sun. In the West, the peacock was considered a snake killer, and the iridescent colors of its tail were attributed to its ability to turn snake venom into solar substance. Since snakes in Iranian symbolism were considered enemies of the sun, it was believed that the peacock killed snakes, in order to create "eyes" from their saliva, iridescent with a bronze-green and gold-blue color on the feathers of its tail. Due to the bright splendor of the male peacock's tail, it has been compared with immortal gods and, therefore, with immortality. Peacocks are known as an emblem of greatness, royal authority, spiritual superiority, ideal creation.
In the early period of Christianity, the peacock was a symbol of love, resurrection, immortality, beauty, eternity of the soul, the all-seeing eye of the Church, and the peacock feather was the emblem of Saint Barbara. The image of peacocks with snakes in their beaks on the cross is not at all accidental; it symbolizes the victory of Christ over evil.
On the back side of the cross, traces of fixing are preserved, probably of a pin (missing), so the object served as a brooch (fibula), which was probably attached to the fabric. The piece is presumably dated back to the 9th-12th centuries.
The object has the following dimensions: height - 125 mm; width - 86 mm; weight - 47 g.
Tyragetia, nr. XV
I. Archeologie et histoire
• Ilie Borziac, Nicolae Chetraru, Bone Objects with Traces of Activity Characteristic for Mousterian Culture between Prut and Dniester
• Serghei Fidelschi, Trade Development of the Settled Population of the Lower Dniester in the 7th-3rd Century B.C.
• Alexandru Levinschi, Serghei Covalenco, Sergiu Bodean, New Getian Vestiges in the Zone of the Moldavian Codri
• Igor Cetvericov, Natalia Mateevici, Epigraphic Pieces from the Barbarian Settlement by the River of Crasnaia in the Area of Lower Dniester
· Vlad Vornic, Glass Vessels Discovered in the Archaeological Centre of Budești
• Gheorghe Postică, Observations concerning the topography and the structure of the early medieval settlements from Prut-Dniester space
• Vlad D. Ghimpu, Les Roumains dans la région du Dniestr et Danube en VIII-XII siècles
• Ecaterina Abâzova, Svetlana Reabțeva, Some New Examples of Medieval Non-Ferrous Artifacts in the Collections of the National Museum of History of Moldova
• Ion Eremia, International Juridical Status of Moldova to the end of the 14th Century
• Ion Chirtoagă, Foreign Commerce in the East of the Carpathian Mountains in 14th -early 15th Century
• Angela Zubco, Foreign Pressure and Interferences to the Foundation of the Metropolitanate of Moldova
• Andrei Eșanu, Valentina Eșanu, From Weapons to a Compromise in the Home Policy of Stephen the Great: Forming of the First Gospodar's Council (1457)
• Tamara Nesterov, Reliques du canon médiéval de proportion dans l'architecture ecclésiastique en pierre de Bessarabie
• Eduard Baidaus, Victor Damian, The zaporozhian cossacks and the "moldavian" policy of poland (The end of 16th - beginning of the 17th centuries)
• Lilia Zabolotnaia, Image of Woman from Moldova Reflected in Internal Documents and Formers' Descriptions (the l6th-17th Centuries)
• Nicolae Răileanu, Moldavian-Turkish Relations and the Juridical Status of the Romanian Principalities
• Violeta Tipa, Medieval Moldavian Gala Dress: Between Occidental and Oriental Influences
• Andrei Emilciuc, Port Odesa in the tsarist policy of consolidation of Russia's positions in the black sea basin
• Valentin Tomuleț, Maria Maftei, L'institution de la barrière d'Ismail (1812-1818)
• Valentin Tomuleț, Les sources de profit et le niveau de richesse de la bourgeoisie commerciale de bessarabie (les années 1831-1868)
• Marian Petcu, The Origins of News Items in the Romanian Press
• Aliona Gheorghiță, The Numerical Evolution of the Bulgarian Population in Bessarabia During the 19th Century
• Valentin Tomuleț, Tatiana Chicaroș, Considérations générates sur l'évolutoin de I'enseignement secondaire pour les jeunes filles en Bessarabie dans la deuxième partie du XIX siècle - le debut du XX siècle
• Maria Danilov, Romanian Books from the Library of the Harjauca Cloister (19th-early 20th Centuries)
• Keziban Acar, Images of the turkes in russian patriotic culture during the russo-turkish war of 1877-1878
• Elena Ploșnița, About the "Monumental" Policy of the Russian Tsarism and the "Monumental" Heroes in Bessarabia (1812-1918)
• Anatol Povestca, La vérité historique sur la question de Bessarabie
• Lidia Pădureac, Impact of Home Policy on Foreign Policy: The Romanian-Soviet Relations in 1917-1934
• Artur Cavalini, Corneliu Zelea Codreanu and the Italian neo-fascism
• Elena Postică, Certaines considérations sur l'histoire et la signification des monuments de la gloire militaire dans la République de Moldova
II. Personality, politologie et histoire locale
• Dorin Teodorescu, Antim Ivereanul, the Bishop of Ramnic in 1705-1708
• Dinu Poștarencu, The Family of Stroescu from Bessarabia
• Vasile Dobrescu, "Astra", Vasile Stroescu and the Credit Cooperative movement from Transylvania. Projection and Accomplishments
• Maxim Melinti, Bishop Nicodim (Krotkov) - worthy attendant of Besarabia
• Silvia Şaranuța, Albina Osterman (1856-1936)
• Ludmila Năstase, Les trois Maries de la famille Sciusev
• Vasile Malanețchi, Ten Letters Written by Leon Boga to Father Alexandra Bardieru
• Silviu Andrieș-Tabac, Les Armes et les Drapeaux des villages de Bubuieci et Colonița
• Ion Rotaru, Some Considerations Concerned the Origin of the HarbovatVillage Name
• Nicolae Bulat, "Încercari" - the Magazine of Soroca Pupils of Lyceums (1936-1939)
• Nicolae Demcenco, Nos coeurs en granit
• Essam Abou Salem, A New Way of Adjustment of the Palestinian-Israeli Conflict
• Aurelia Popușoi, The Correlation between Political Institutions and Political
• Constantin Solomon, Parliamentary Election 2005 in Moldova
• Victoria Perciun, Elections and Their Role in the Social Development
III. Religion, museografie et etnographie
• Natalia Chișcă, From Theology to Iconography
· Alina Felea, Testaments as a Source of Study of Attitudes to the Death
• Emanuil Brihuneț, Tombstones of 18th - Early 19th Century in the Lower Dniester Region
• Svetlana Lupașco, La découverte de l'original dans l'iconographie. XVII-XIX siècles
• Victor Filatov, Some Considerations Concerned the Identification of a Chain Mail
• Ludmila Istomina, From the History of Construction of the Archangel Michael Cathedral Church from Cahul
• Irina Goncearova, Medals with the Images of the Popes from the Collections of the National Museum of History of Moldova
• Eugenia Borodac, Tamara Stamatov, Examples of the Caucasian Cold Steel from the Collection of the National Museum of History of Moldova
• Ana Grițco, La collecton de cartes posrales du parrimoine du Musée National d'Histoire de Moldova)
• Liubov Malahov, The Gospel from the Kievo-Pecherskaya Lavra (1890) - a Rare Book from the Collections of the National Museum of History of Moldova
• Silvia Şaranuța, Ornements populaires moldaves du patrimoine du Musée National d'Ethnographie et d'Histoire Naturelle
• Varvara Buzilă, The ritual of wine "honoring"
IV. Comptes - rendus, chronique museale, ommages
• Constantin Stere, Un caz de conștiință, Editura Viața Românească, București, 1921, 86 p., [Dragoș Toma, O carte rară din colecția Muzeului Național de Arlieologie și Istorie]
• Presa din Basarabia. Analize, contexte, valori (2854-2004), Cartdidact, Chișinău, 2005, 144 p. [Constantin Drachenberg, "Un valoros studiu științific"]
• Cartea Memoriei. Catalog al victimelor totalitarismului comunist, vol. I-IV, Ştiința, Chișinău (vol. I,1999,464+XIV p.; vol.II, 2001, 464 p.; vol. III. 2003, 424 p.; vol.IV, 2005, 438 p.) [dr. hab. prof. univ. Anatol Petrencu, "Un important studiu privind trecutul totalitar"]
• Analecta Catholica. Episcopia Romano-Catolică de Chișinău, I, Chișinău, 2005, 300 p. [Aurelia Cornețchi]
• Silvia Grossu, Written Romanian Press in the Past, at Present and in Perspective. The National Symposium of Journalism, 2005
· Ana Grițco, "Le cygne de Bessarabie" est revenue à la maison
· Valeriu Nazar, In the Universe of the Bessarabian Press
• Ecaterina Bondarenco, L'exposition "Le visage visible et invisible de l'objet du patrimoine"
· Aurelia Cornețchi, Exhibition "Destinies in the Light of Arts"
• Natalia Chișcă, Cultural-Scientific Activities of the National Museum of History of Moldova in 2005
· Nicolae Chetraru: at the origines of the Bessarabian Archaeology
• Alexandra Primac: a Hardened Destiny.
#Exhibit of the Month
From the early days of Christianity, the cross meant not only an instrument of torture, but also a symbol of victory over death, a symbol of salvation. The object is made of silver, having the shape of a Byzantine cross with trapezoidal edges of the arms. The side arms and the one at the bottom seem to be turned inside a vessel (chalice (?)) with the trapezoidal "foot". The arms of the cross and of the "chalice" were ended with a decorative element in the shape of a sphere (drop). The cross has a decoration in relief, executed in the technique of filigree and granulation, consisting of drops, double and triple cords, circles with a drop in the center, and trefoils (?). In the center of the cross, at the intersection of the arms, there is a round mount with a cord-like edge, in which the pomegranate fruit is located...
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