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National Museum of History of Moldova
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#Exhibit of the Month

It is said that the icons, by the divine grace they have, choose their own places from where they can manifest their powers of blessing and consolation. It so happened that one icon of the Mother of God has remained on our lands from the end of the 18th century, when the battles of the Russo-Turkish war of 1787-1791 took place here. The circumstances of the appearance of this icon in Bessarabia are confirmed by several historical references, from which it follows that the Russian officer N.A. Albaduev, a participant in the military campaign, brought this icon here with him, and after his death his relatives – the colonel’s wife or his mother – gave this icon to the monastery, where he suddenly died when he came there on Christmas to receive communion. The icon of the Mother of God was initially placed in the old wooden church, where the officer’s grave was located, and then was placed in the new Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin, built and consecrated in 1816.

Soon the icon became very popular, and its fame increased enormously thanks to the healings that occurred thanks to the intercession of the Mother of God; the names of the healed people, their place of residence and sufferings were described in periodicals. Archimandrite Seraphim, hegumen of the monastery in from 1805 to 1827, mentioned the special veneration of the icon of the Mother of God from the Hârbovăţ Monastery by Orthodox people who are always looking for help and intercession from this icon of the Empress of The World. Believers called it a wonder-making icon even before the Holy Synod issued Decree No. 526 of January 26, 1859, signed by Emperor Alexander II, proclaiming the icon of the Our Lady of Hârbovăţ as the Wonder-Making. Recognizing the miraculous properties of this icon, the Holy Synod also organized religious processions with the delivery of the icon to Chişinău on October 1 and its subsequent return to the monastery on April 23.

The icon of the Mother of God of Hârbovăţ is one of the earliest and most popular types of the Theotokos icons, that of Hodegetria. In this iconographic depiction, the Mother of God and the Child are presented in a frontal position, looking at the one who is praying. The Mother of God holds the Child on Her left hand, and with Her right hand points to Him, the Child blesses with His right hand, holding in His left hand a sacred scroll – a symbol of the Gospel. Regarding the images, it should be said that the icons of the Herbovets Mother of God differ from the traditional icons of the Hodegetria type in a special relationship between the characters, their mutual affection is expressed in poses, in the tilt of the heads, in the gentle expression of the Child’s face. We can say that in the iconography of the Mother of God of Hârbovăţ, features of two different types of Theotokos are harmoniously combined: the Mother of God Hodegetria, or Our Lady of the Way, and the Mother of God Eleusa, or the Virgin of Tenderness.

Exact copies of this icon are still kept in the summer church of the Noul Neamţ Monastery in the village of Chiţcani (Căuşeni), in the Intercession of the Blessed Virgin Church in the village of Sîrcova (Rezina), in the All Saints Church in Chişinău (early 20th century), in the Transfiguration Cathedral in Bolgrad, in the Transfiguration Monastery in Tatarbunary, in the Saint Paraskeva Church in the village of Furatovka (Odessa Oblast), in the Saint Archangel Michael Monastery in Odessa, in the Ascension Monastery in Teplodar (Ukraine), in the Holy Trinity Monastery in the village of Mramor, near Topolovgrad (Bulgaria), in the Holy Great Martyr Theodore Tyron Cathedral in Chişinău, in the Saint Prince Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in Ungheni, and other churches.

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National Museum of History of Moldova
 

Research Projects


"Role of museum heritage in the development of contemporary society" (2015-2018)

Since 2015 the museum's researchers will implement the institutional project Role of museum heritage in the development of contemporary society part of strategic direction National heritage and development of society.
Project director is dr.hab. Elena Ploșnița

Cultural heritage, important component of culture, is resultant of social-cultural and political-economic developments. Cultural heritage, including museum heritage, is of particular importance for the human community to which it is associated and for society as a whole.

In an open society, democratization of culture and of museum institutions which, permanently broaden their cultural offer, presumes a responsibility for research and scientific or public valorification of museum's assets. In recent years, public institutions, national and international forums have argued various concepts such as valorification of museum heritage, museum brand, cultural tourism, museum marketing and management. This orientation of public institutions, mass-media and society in general is owed to the importance of social-cultural factors as levers and main components of sustainable social-economic development. This change, which envisions a reassessment of economic importance besides the cultural one of national cultural heritage, including museum heritage, requires shifting the focus to areas not addressed so far or insufficiently taken into account, such as the role of museum institutions in the development of a sustainable society.

The project proposes several major research directions:

- systematization of archaeological collections, medieval period;
- documentation, research and scientific and public valorifiation of several categories of museum assets: collection of gold and silver objects from ancient times to the end of twentieth century, collection of advertising posters, collection of watches, coin collection from the archaeological site Costești, thirteenth-fourteenth century;
- identification of museum's educational role throughout its existence and impact for society;
- improvement of the ways of communicating the scientific message to contemporary Moldovan society;
- promotion of museum heritage in the Moldovan society and abroad through a broad program of scientific valorifiation, exhibitions and publishing.

The project will contribute to scientific systematization of museum collections, to enhancing the dialogue between museum and society (public), to the development of an open society aware of the value and necessity of promoting the museum heritage at home and abroad.

The role of museum heritage in social development presumes primarily valorification. Museum cultural heritage valorification means, on one hand, good conservation and preservation and, on the other hand, proper systematization so to fulfill its cultural, social and educational mission. The valorification of heritage has both a scientific and cultural aspect, related to the analysis and dissemination of information about the significance of cultural heritage, and an economical one. A good activity leads not only to preservation but to a well informed society. Today, the performance of cultural institutions, their accomplished missions and objectives are increasingly measured by economic criteria: profitability, efficiency, degree of public satisfaction, number and impact of programs and products developed etc. What differs is the assessment perspective: the first is social-cultural perspective; however the economical one cannot be ignored.

Three basic principles:

- sustainable cultural development (heritage enrichment and transmission to future generations)
- serving a wide audience
- adaptation to external and internal environment should be extremely dynamic.

These are three principles underlying the correlation of results to be obtained in this project with the results obtained by museums around the world in their relation with the contemporary society.

Scientific research results will be summarized in articles, monographs, catalogues of heritage collections, thematic exhibitions.

The following results are expected for the first year (2015) of project:

- will be identified the heritage value of various categories of museum assets with the aim to introduce them into the scientific and public circuit, national and international for the benefit of society,
- will be systematized the theory and practice of Moldovan museology under the aspect of museum role and place for the educational system of Moldova,
- will be developed and published a catalogue with pieces from the collection of precious metals, a monograph focused on Cucuteni-Tripyllian culture, a monograph arguing museum-public and museum-society relationships from the end of nineteenth century till our days,
- will continue the process of digitization of museum collections,
- will be organized exhibitions home and abroad.





 

 


Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age

  
  
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#Exhibit of the Month

It is said that the icons, by the divine grace they have, choose their own places from where they can manifest their powers of blessing and consolation. It so happened that one icon of the Mother of God has remained on our lands from the end of the 18th century, when the battles of the Russo-Turkish war of 1787-1791 took place here. The circumstances of the appearance of this icon in Bessarabia are confirmed by several historical references, from which it follows that the Russian officer N.A. Albaduev, a participant in the military campaign, brought this icon here with him, and after his death his relatives – the colonel’s wife or his mother – gave this icon to the monastery, where he suddenly died when he came there on Christmas to receive communion. The icon of the Mother of God was initially placed in the old wooden church, where the officer’s grave was located, and then was placed in the new Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin, built and consecrated in 1816..

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