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National Museum of History of Moldova
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#Exhibit of the Month

It is said that the icons, by the divine grace they have, choose their own places from where they can manifest their powers of blessing and consolation. It so happened that one icon of the Mother of God has remained on our lands from the end of the 18th century, when the battles of the Russo-Turkish war of 1787-1791 took place here. The circumstances of the appearance of this icon in Bessarabia are confirmed by several historical references, from which it follows that the Russian officer N.A. Albaduev, a participant in the military campaign, brought this icon here with him, and after his death his relatives – the colonel’s wife or his mother – gave this icon to the monastery, where he suddenly died when he came there on Christmas to receive communion. The icon of the Mother of God was initially placed in the old wooden church, where the officer’s grave was located, and then was placed in the new Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin, built and consecrated in 1816.

Soon the icon became very popular, and its fame increased enormously thanks to the healings that occurred thanks to the intercession of the Mother of God; the names of the healed people, their place of residence and sufferings were described in periodicals. Archimandrite Seraphim, hegumen of the monastery in from 1805 to 1827, mentioned the special veneration of the icon of the Mother of God from the Hârbovăţ Monastery by Orthodox people who are always looking for help and intercession from this icon of the Empress of The World. Believers called it a wonder-making icon even before the Holy Synod issued Decree No. 526 of January 26, 1859, signed by Emperor Alexander II, proclaiming the icon of the Our Lady of Hârbovăţ as the Wonder-Making. Recognizing the miraculous properties of this icon, the Holy Synod also organized religious processions with the delivery of the icon to Chişinău on October 1 and its subsequent return to the monastery on April 23.

The icon of the Mother of God of Hârbovăţ is one of the earliest and most popular types of the Theotokos icons, that of Hodegetria. In this iconographic depiction, the Mother of God and the Child are presented in a frontal position, looking at the one who is praying. The Mother of God holds the Child on Her left hand, and with Her right hand points to Him, the Child blesses with His right hand, holding in His left hand a sacred scroll – a symbol of the Gospel. Regarding the images, it should be said that the icons of the Herbovets Mother of God differ from the traditional icons of the Hodegetria type in a special relationship between the characters, their mutual affection is expressed in poses, in the tilt of the heads, in the gentle expression of the Child’s face. We can say that in the iconography of the Mother of God of Hârbovăţ, features of two different types of Theotokos are harmoniously combined: the Mother of God Hodegetria, or Our Lady of the Way, and the Mother of God Eleusa, or the Virgin of Tenderness.

Exact copies of this icon are still kept in the summer church of the Noul Neamţ Monastery in the village of Chiţcani (Căuşeni), in the Intercession of the Blessed Virgin Church in the village of Sîrcova (Rezina), in the All Saints Church in Chişinău (early 20th century), in the Transfiguration Cathedral in Bolgrad, in the Transfiguration Monastery in Tatarbunary, in the Saint Paraskeva Church in the village of Furatovka (Odessa Oblast), in the Saint Archangel Michael Monastery in Odessa, in the Ascension Monastery in Teplodar (Ukraine), in the Holy Trinity Monastery in the village of Mramor, near Topolovgrad (Bulgaria), in the Holy Great Martyr Theodore Tyron Cathedral in Chişinău, in the Saint Prince Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in Ungheni, and other churches.

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National Museum of History of Moldova
 

Exhibitions

„Images of Women in Soviet Posters”

August – November 2020

 
The museum fulfills its natural purpose, that of preserving and making available for public viewing various categories of exhibits. This time in the focus is the collection of posters featuring the image of a Soviet woman who played an important role in all areas of socio-economic and cultural life.

The first Soviet posters were dated 1917, the time of the Bolshevik coup in Russia; they served as a means of mass communication used in order to justify the Bolshevik dictatorship. The Soviet authorities saw the poster as an effective tool for mobilizing the masses, who could not read or write. Today, looking at these posters, it is easy to imagine that the production of posters in the Soviet Union was extremely intense. Hundreds of posters were created and printed in tens or even hundreds of thousands of copies, displayed everywhere: in towns and villages, in factories and plants, in kolkhozes, schools, hospitals, etc. The process of creating the posters was very complicated and included the effort of a large number of painters, writers, poets, journalists.¶

The exhibition Images of Women in Soviet Posters is the result of research and development of the National Museum of History of Moldova collection of Soviet posters (about 3000 exhibits). Posters from the collection that has been made up for several decades of the 20th century on the basis of donations and acquisitions feature women involved in the construction of a new Soviet society. The chronological framework of the exhibition covers the period from 1920 to 1985. The oldest poster dates from 1920 and is dedicated to the rights and opportunities acquired by women after the 1917 revolution. Through the 50 posters on display, we offer the visitors an overview of the image of women in the Soviet poster. These objects, of documentary, historical and artistic value, were also an effective means of propaganda, being an evidence of the past and briefly reflecting the processes and events that took place in Soviet society. ¶

Diverse in message, format and design, as well as in terms of theme, the posters was structured in several groups: women after the 1917 revolution, equal in rights with men; the role of women in the collectivization process; women in the war front and behind the front line; the contribution of women to the restoration of the national economy (at a lathe, in a mine, in a tractor); woman as a mother; women of various professions; women fighting for peace; women and sports, etc. Important by message and valuable by design are the posters with the image of a woman during the Second World War, used to the maximum during military mobilization, in the recruitment of civilians and their employment in the war industry. A shrill expressiveness and colorfulness are inherent in the posters depicting women in agriculture. The posters dedicated to the motherhood, with concise texts and suggestive images, had a special role, representing the portrait of the new woman who, most of the times, was urged to give up the household and to participate in work and social activities. Posters depicting women in the restoration of the national economy, in sports, etc., are also very clear. Famous artists from the USSR, including the MSSR, contributed to the creation of the posters: D. Bedny, N. Coretsky, A. Bubnov, N. Vatolina, I. Bogdesco, G. Dimitriu, O. Cojocaru, I. Taburţă, and others.

The exhibition once again demonstrates that the Soviet poster was one of the most effective methods of promoting state ideology and policy.

Curator: Vera Stăvilă.



 




Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age

  
  
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#Exhibit of the Month

It is said that the icons, by the divine grace they have, choose their own places from where they can manifest their powers of blessing and consolation. It so happened that one icon of the Mother of God has remained on our lands from the end of the 18th century, when the battles of the Russo-Turkish war of 1787-1791 took place here. The circumstances of the appearance of this icon in Bessarabia are confirmed by several historical references, from which it follows that the Russian officer N.A. Albaduev, a participant in the military campaign, brought this icon here with him, and after his death his relatives – the colonel’s wife or his mother – gave this icon to the monastery, where he suddenly died when he came there on Christmas to receive communion. The icon of the Mother of God was initially placed in the old wooden church, where the officer’s grave was located, and then was placed in the new Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin, built and consecrated in 1816..

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