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#Exhibit of the Month

From the early days of Christianity, the cross meant not only an instrument of torture, but also a symbol of victory over death, a symbol of salvation. The object is made of silver, having the shape of a Byzantine cross with trapezoidal edges of the arms. The side arms and the one at the bottom seem to be turned inside a vessel (chalice (?)) with the trapezoidal "foot". The arms of the cross and of the "chalice" were ended with a decorative element in the shape of a sphere (drop). The cross has a decoration in relief, executed in the technique of filigree and granulation, consisting of drops, double and triple cords, circles with a drop in the center, and trefoils (?). In the center of the cross, at the intersection of the arms, there is a round mount with a cord-like edge, in which the pomegranate fruit is located. However, the main decorative element is the images of four peacocks turned to the right, with a snake in the beak, arranged on all the arms of the cross. The image of the peacocks is rendered in an artistic way, and their tails are stylized in the shape of a palmette.
The peacock, originated from India, due to its luxurious fan-shaped tail, was considered a symbol of the Sun. In ancient Greece, they were considered the sacred birds of the goddess Hera, and in ancient Rome they were considered the sacred birds of the goddess Juno. In Kievan Rus', the peacock (the Firebird) also symbolized the Sun. In the West, the peacock was considered a snake killer, and the iridescent colors of its tail were attributed to its ability to turn snake venom into solar substance. Since snakes in Iranian symbolism were considered enemies of the sun, it was believed that the peacock killed snakes, in order to create "eyes" from their saliva, iridescent with a bronze-green and gold-blue color on the feathers of its tail. Due to the bright splendor of the male peacock's tail, it has been compared with immortal gods and, therefore, with immortality. Peacocks are known as an emblem of greatness, royal authority, spiritual superiority, ideal creation.

In the early period of Christianity, the peacock was a symbol of love, resurrection, immortality, beauty, eternity of the soul, the all-seeing eye of the Church, and the peacock feather was the emblem of Saint Barbara. The image of peacocks with snakes in their beaks on the cross is not at all accidental; it symbolizes the victory of Christ over evil.

On the back side of the cross, traces of fixing are preserved, probably of a pin (missing), so the object served as a brooch (fibula), which was probably attached to the fabric. The piece is presumably dated back to the 9th-12th centuries.

The object has the following dimensions: height - 125 mm; width - 86 mm; weight - 47 g.


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National Museum of History of Moldova
 

Exhibitions

„Millennia of civilizations at Orheiul Vechi. 70 years of archaeological research”

21 September 2017 - 31 December 2018

The National Museum of History of Moldova opened on 21 September the exhibition "Millennia of civilization at Orheiul Vechi. 70 years of archaeological research". The event  is organized as part of the European Heritage Days.

In 2017 are celebrated 70 years since the beginning of archaeological research in the micro zone of Orheiul Vechi. Center of thousands of years of history, heart and soul of Moldova, the Orheiul Vechi Cultural and Natural Reservation is a unique place where the elements of history and archaeology, ethnography and traditional rural architecture, cult places of worship and unforgettable images of the landscape have merged. The beginning of research at this site conducted by researcher Gh.D. Smirnov date back to postwar years of 1947-1948. Later, at this site worked well-known Moldovan archaeologists I. Niculiță, P. Bârnea, Gh. Postică, T. Reaboi, E. Abâzova, T. Arnăut, O. Munteanu, A. Zanoci etc. For many archaeologists in the Republic of Moldova, the archaeological campaigns in Orheiul Vechi became a visit card for future professional activity.

The originality of the exhibition dedicated to Orheiul Vechi consists in the fact that most of the presented pieces are exhibited for the first time; however they have been long known and studied in the science community.

The exhibition brings together a series of objects belonging to different civilizations that have existed here, being structured in two compartments: the ancient period in Orheiul Vechi and the medieval period.

The first compartment includes archaeological remains discovered on the territory of the Butuceni Getae fortress. They represent various objects from the material culture of the native population, such as clay pots, tools, weapons and cult objects. The commercial relations they had with the Greek merchants are expressed through the many fragments of Greek vessels, various containers for keeping products and everyday vessels. The impressive amount of Greek amphorae of the total ceramic fragments found (about 20%) demonstrates the importance and significance of this Getae fortress for the barbarian world in the given region along with the discovery of the first and only sanctuary - a Getae calendar which confirms the importance of this habitat as a political, social and economic center of the Getae communities in the region.

The second compartment is dedicated to the medieval civilization from Orheiul Vechi. Archaeological research confirmed the urban character of the settlement during the Golden Horde (14th century) and its name - Şehr al-cedid // New Town. The collection of materials includes luxury ceramic pots, a Chinese porcelain bowl, Kashin-type import pots specific for the Golden Horde, aqueduct tubes, bone and metal weapons and tools. The two large warehouses found at Orheiul Vechi are exhibited: one consisting of agricultural pieces and the other of harness parts and household objects. Monetary discovery is represented by local issues associated with coins coming from different states, but also moneyboxes, weights, plates for scales.

The Moldavian period (15th - 16th centuries) is represented by ceramic vessels, agricultural tools and household appliances made of metal, stone, bone and ceramics, as well as weapons, tiles, crosses and candlesticks. A special place in the exhibition belongs to two bronze cannons from the 15th century which are unique pieces for the entire Romanian space.

In the exhibition are displayed also a series of pictures that reflect the process of archaeological research, as well as photographs of the most beautiful artifacts and landscapes of Orheiul Orhei.



 




Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age

  
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#Exhibit of the Month

From the early days of Christianity, the cross meant not only an instrument of torture, but also a symbol of victory over death, a symbol of salvation. The object is made of silver, having the shape of a Byzantine cross with trapezoidal edges of the arms. The side arms and the one at the bottom seem to be turned inside a vessel (chalice (?)) with the trapezoidal "foot". The arms of the cross and of the "chalice" were ended with a decorative element in the shape of a sphere (drop). The cross has a decoration in relief, executed in the technique of filigree and granulation, consisting of drops, double and triple cords, circles with a drop in the center, and trefoils (?). In the center of the cross, at the intersection of the arms, there is a round mount with a cord-like edge, in which the pomegranate fruit is located...

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2021 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2021 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

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