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National Museum of History of Moldova
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#Exhibit of the Month

The hoard was found in 1957 during the agricultural works near the village. At first, the hoard was in the collection of the National Museum of Ethnography and Natural History and later was transferred to the National Museum of History (Accession: FB: 12 576 - 12650; N: 12 658 - 12 732). It consists of 75 silver coins from the thaler category issued by the Kingdom of Poland, the United Provinces and the Holy Roman Empire in 1612-1648.

THE KINGDOM OF POLAND
Sigismund II Vasa (1586-1632)
Crown, thaler: 1628 (1).
Gdańsk, orts: 1612 (1), 1613 (1*), 1614 (1), 1615 (7), 1616 (8), 1617 (16), 1618 (4), 1619 (2), 161 (1), 1620 (2), 1621 (8).

THE UNITED PROVINCES OF THE NETHERLANDS
Lion thalers (leeuwendaalder)
Gelderland: 1641 (1), 1647 (2), 1649 (1).
West Frisia: 1648 (1).
Utrecht: 1643 (1), 1646 (1), 1647 (2), 1648 (1).

THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE
Kampen: halve leeuwendaalder 1646 (1), 1647 (1); leeuwendaalder 1647 (3), 1649 (1).
Zwolle: leeuwendaalder 1633 (1), 1637 (3), 1644 (1), 1646 (2), 1648 (1).

This hoard by its composition confirms the presence of silver coins from the thaler category in the Principality of Moldavia monetary circulation.

Thalers were first minted in 1486 in Sankt-Joachimsthal, today the Czech Republic, "thaler" being an abbreviation of "Joachimsthaler", meaning coin issued in Sankt-Joachimsthal. In the 16th and 17th centuries, thalers were issued in very large quantities, especially by state entities that were part of the Holy Roman Empire and the Habsburg Empire. Thus, thalers can be considered a quintessentially popular coin; there are thalers of several types, such as Austrian thalers, Polish thalers, Russian thalers, Turkish thalers, Venetian thalers, also called scuzi, "reichsthalers", also called imperials, löwenthalers or lion thalers, and Spanish thalers, also called piastre. In the Romanian principalities, thalers spread widely towards the end of the 16th century, and in the following centuries their circulation became very abundant, the thaler being in circulation until the second half of the 19th century. This money was a huge success, so it is also called: daalder / daler in the Netherlands, talar in Poland, dahlar in Scandinavia, tallaro / tallero in Italy, talari in Ethiopia, dollar in America. A special category is the Dutch thaler, leeuwendaalder, löwenthaler, which means "lion thaler", also called "lion" due to the coat of arms on the reverse, which is a shield with a crown, with a lion inside; it is a silver coin minted in Netherlands, where in 1575 it was decided to mint a new coin based on the scuzi. In the Romanian principalities the lion thaler appears in the last quarter of the 16th century. These lion thaler gave the name to the currency of Romania, the Republic of Moldova (leu), and Bulgaria (leva).

Orts are also silver coins from the thaler category, equal to 1/4 thaler. A quarter thaler was originally called "ortstaler", a name that was later reduced to the form "ort" (in Old German "ort" means "a quarter"). The coin circulated in Europe in the Middle Ages, including the Romanian principalities, being met in the 18th century as Polish, Turkish and German orts. The term "ort" is preserved in the Romanian expression "to give an ort to a priest" (which means "to die"), which dates back to the ancient pagan custom of placing a coin on the little finger of the deceased's right hand so that he could pay for the passage to the afterlife; With the same coin, the priest was paid for the funeral service: the family of the deceased "gave an ort to the priest" to observe church traditions.

 
National Museum of History of Moldova
 

Events Archive

Launch of the project „Historic site Camp of King Charles XII of Sweden - valorisation and promotion"

April 8th, 2016

Friday, April 8, the National Museum of History of Moldova organised a special event in the village of Varnița - the official launch of project „Historic site Camp of King Charles XII of Sweden from Varnița - valorisation and promotion"/SITVAR. The museum is the main partner of NGO Woman. Hope. Future (Varnița) which will implement the project in the period of April 1, 2016 - May 1, 2017, in partnership with the municipality of Varnița and the Agency for Inspection and Restoration of Monuments.

The event was attended by the representatives of diplomatic missions, state secretary of the Ministry of Culture of Moldova, some guests from Sweden (Vetlanda), Moldavian scholars, local public administration and community.

The event was hosted by the mayor of Varnița, Alexandru Nichitenco, and the general director of the National Museum of History of Moldova, dr.hab. Eugen Sava. In his welcoming speech, Al. Nichitenco noted the necessity and usefulness of the project, thanked everyone for their presence at the event and expressed hope that in March 2017 will witness the opening of the historic site Camp of King Charles XII of Sweden in Varnița for the public.

E. Sava in his speech made a chronological presentation of the events that preceded the development and launch of the project. He noted that in the period 2013-2015 in Moldova, Turkey, Sweden and Greece was implemented another project called "When Sweden was governed from Moldova" which had as aim to preserve historical memory, to valorise a common segment of the Moldovan-Swedish-Turkish history and to mark the 300th anniversary of the "kalabalik" from Varnița. This project was conducted in Moldova by the National Museum of History of Moldova.

Starting April 1, 2016, the museum will contribute to the realization of this project and will soon come up with new ideas regarding the 300th anniversary in 2018 from the death of King Charles XII of Sweden.

The project „Historic site Camp of King Charles XII of Sweden - valorisation and promotion" is funded by the European Union in the framework of the international program on the development of cultural heritage - CHOICE/Cultural Heritage: Opportunity For Improving Civic Engagement. Valeria Suruceanu, president of ICOM Moldova made a short presentation of the project at the event, mentioning that this project is implemented in Moldova by the NGO National Committee ICOM Moldova in partnership with the Association of Agencies for Local Democracy ALDA (France) and it provides a scheme for funding under the program of small grants to non-governmental organisations that propose innovative projects on the protection and interpretation of national cultural heritage. Besides Moldova, this program also operates in Belarus, Ukraine and Armenia with advisory and informational support of partner organisations: International NGO "EuroBelarus" (Vilnius, Lithuania), Centre for Cultural Management (Lviv, Ukraine), Millennium Foundation (Erevan, Armenia) and Social Organisation "Centre for cultural innovations" (Minsk, Belarus).

Her Excellency, Mrs. Signe Burgstaller, Ambassador of Sweden in Moldova, welcomed the participants to the event focusing in her speech on the cooperation relations between Moldova and Sweden, the need to preserve and promote historical memory, the common segment of the Moldovan and Swedish history from the beginning of the eighteenth century.

Andrei Chistol, State Secretary at the Ministry of Culture of Moldova, highlighted the role of cultural institutions, including museums, in preserving and popularizing cultural heritage in the country and abroad. He stressed that many projects were implemented in Varnița, including cultural projects, and expressed the hope that the community will support the project that was launched at the event.

Dr. hab Elena Ploșnița presented the project „Historic site Camp of King Charles XII from Varnița - valorisation and promotion". She noted that the historic site from Varnița dates back from the 18th century. King Charles XII of Sweden, after the defeat from Poltava in 1709, settled down at Bender (Tighina), and later at Varnița, together with around 1000 Swedish soldiers. On February 1, 1713, in the king's camp from Varnița took place the so-called kalanalik when the kind was captured and taken to Timurtash (today Erdine, in the European part of Turkey). He was killed in 1718 in Norway. In 1925, in the memory of the king's stay at Varnița, on the place of the former camp was erected a monument - an obelisk. The purpose of the project is the rehabilitation and public valorisation of the historic site by a series of actions: restoration of the monument of King Charles XII of Sweden, scientific valorisation and popularisation of the cultural heritage from the historic site, site development. E. Ploșnița mentioned that several actions are planned in the framework of the project, including historic and documentary research, archaeological surveys, restoration of the monument, conservation of heritage, an international scientific conference, a publication, an exhibition stand, fence around the site and the opening of the rehabilitated site to the wide public and visitors.
Veronica Ştefaniuc, president of NGO Woman. Hope. Future (Varnița) made a brief presentation about Varnița's history and present and showed information about the results of several projects unfold in the village with the support of local non governmental associations.

Architect Ion Budeci from the Agency for the Inspection and Restoration of Monuments presented a draft project for the valorisation of the site from Varnița. He presented several sketches, ideas and innovative solutions to be considered and, possibly, implemented.

Paul Diaconu, representative of the Society for the Study of History Nordisk Historia och Kultur Fömedlingen from Sweden proposed new ways of presentation of the cultural heritage from the rehabilitated historic site. He launched the idea of cooperation with the municipality of Vetlanda from Sweden and promised support to the project.
In the second part of the event, the participants visited the historic site and gave interviews for the mass-media.

Elena Ploșnița




 

 


Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
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#Exhibit of the Month

The hoard was found in 1957 during the agricultural works near the village. At first, the hoard was in the collection of the National Museum of Ethnography and Natural History and later was transferred to the National Museum of History (Accession: FB: 12 576 - 12650; N: 12 658 - 12 732). It consists of 75 silver coins from the thaler category issued by the Kingdom of Poland, the United Provinces and the Holy Roman Empire in 1612-1648...

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