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#Exhibit of the Month

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One of the great technical achievements that revolutionized the idea of time and space, opening a new era in the history of communication, is telegraphy. It is based on the transmission of electrical signals through a cable over long distances, allowing people to communicate instantly. The telegraph spread very quickly and a network of wires stretched around the world.

In 1837, the American painter and physicist Samuel Morse invented the first electromagnetic device for telegraphy, patented in 1840. To send messages by wire, Morse developed in 1838 a simple code of dots and dashes, which represented the letters of the alphabet, known as "Morse code ".

Both Morse code and the telegraph machine were improved over time, with the telegraph becoming the most widespread system of communication and information transmission for more than a century, until the advent of the Internet. The telegraph system consisted of a series of stations repeaters along the transmission line route. Each station had an operator who received and transmitted messages by telegraph. The Morse machine transmitted about 25 words per minute, which were recorded in code on a paper tape. The operator in charge of transmitting the message would decode it and write it on paper using a special typewriter.

In Bessarabia, the telegraph entered in 1860: on April 8, the Bender telegraph station began its activity, and on April 24, the one in Chisinau, following the construction of the first Odesa-Chisinau-Leova telegraph line. Currently, telegraph services have been discontinued. The only ones who still use coded communication are radio amateurs.

The Morse telegraph machine shown comes from the Osinoostrovsky electrotechnical plant, Soviet Union, and dates back to 1934. The exhibit was restored by Mihail Culașco.

Virtual Tour


#Exhibit of the Month

March 2023

The anthropomorphic figurine from Cealîc

The anthropomorphic figurine belongs to the Eneolithic period - the middle of the 5th millennium BC. It was discovered in a fragmentary state, during the archaeological excavations, carried out by I. Manzura and B. Govedaritsa in 2012, in the settlement of Cealîc, Taraclia district. The fragments of the figurine were found among pieces of burnt clay paste, in the southern part of a dwelling, which most likely represented a special place for religious ceremonies. This hypothesis is also supported by the presence near the figurine of seven small cups, decorated with incised ornament, which were apparently used for ritual libations.

The figurine is made of fine clay paste, mixed with crushed ceramic, and its surface is covered with a layer of light brown engobe. It is made in a realistic manner, traditional for the Gumelnița culture, and shows a female figure in a vertical position, with folded and raised arms, in the so-called "Oranta" pose, which is widespread in the Orthodox iconographic tradition, when the image of the Mother of God is depicted. The figure's head placed on a tall cylindrical neck has a flattened shape, the nose is represented by a vertical belt, and the eyes - by two holes. The body is flattened, widening sharply at the bottom. On the surface of the body, the chest and navel are well highlighted. The buttocks and legs are well contoured and decorated in a voluminous manner. The surface of the buttocks is decorated with spiral-shaped incisions, and the thighs - with vertical and oblique incisions. A horizontal belt can be seen below the knees, which possibly represents the upper part of the footwear of the type of high boots. On the arms and in the lower part of the body there are holes, intended for hanging some accessories.

Anthropomorphic figurines belong to the category of cult objects and, according to specialists, are associated with various ritual ceremonies. In archaeological sites from the Neolithic and Eneolithic eras, they are usually found in contexts related to the mythical world of gods or otherworldly ancestors. Figurines are usually found near houses ovens or hearths, in places considered to be located on the border between worlds. In the funerary practice of those times, female figurines are usually associated with the burials of children under 10-12 years old, who, according to the visions of the ancients, still partially belong to the other world. It is believed that in the religious structures of prehistoric farmers, female anthropomorphic images were associated with the cult of fertility and rebirth. These possibly depicted the Great Mother Goddess or fertility deity. According to some researchers, anthropomorphic figurines in general could be associated with ancestor worship.

Figure dimensions: Height - 195 mm, Maximum width - 84 mm.
Cultural affiliation: Gumelnița A Culture, Bolgrad-Aldeni Variant,
Date: approx. 4600-4400 BC



 

 


Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age
  
  

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#Exhibit of the Month

One of the great technical achievements that revolutionized the idea of time and space, opening a new era in the history of communication, is telegraphy. It is based on the transmission of electrical signals through a cable over long distances, allowing people to communicate instantly...

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC