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One of the great technical achievements that revolutionized the idea of time and space, opening a new era in the history of communication, is telegraphy. It is based on the transmission of electrical signals through a cable over long distances, allowing people to communicate instantly. The telegraph spread very quickly and a network of wires stretched around the world.

In 1837, the American painter and physicist Samuel Morse invented the first electromagnetic device for telegraphy, patented in 1840. To send messages by wire, Morse developed in 1838 a simple code of dots and dashes, which represented the letters of the alphabet, known as "Morse code ".

Both Morse code and the telegraph machine were improved over time, with the telegraph becoming the most widespread system of communication and information transmission for more than a century, until the advent of the Internet. The telegraph system consisted of a series of stations repeaters along the transmission line route. Each station had an operator who received and transmitted messages by telegraph. The Morse machine transmitted about 25 words per minute, which were recorded in code on a paper tape. The operator in charge of transmitting the message would decode it and write it on paper using a special typewriter.

In Bessarabia, the telegraph entered in 1860: on April 8, the Bender telegraph station began its activity, and on April 24, the one in Chisinau, following the construction of the first Odesa-Chisinau-Leova telegraph line. Currently, telegraph services have been discontinued. The only ones who still use coded communication are radio amateurs.

The Morse telegraph machine shown comes from the Osinoostrovsky electrotechnical plant, Soviet Union, and dates back to 1934. The exhibit was restored by Mihail Culașco.

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Publications Journal „Tyragetia"   vol. VIII [XXIII], nr. 1


Social symbols in the Bronze Age. Antler and bone scepters
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

Social symbols in the Bronze Age. Antler and bone scepters

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VIII [XXIII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică

The present study discusses the antler and bone scepters specifi c for the Romanian Bronze Age. This type of objects have been found since the Neolithic period, they are frequently encountered during the Bronze Age and rarely discovered in the first period of the Iron Age.

The majority of the pieces are made of antler and only a couple of them are made of bone. Some of the pieces, beautifully decorated have a central perforation in order to fi x it in a wooden handle. Concerning the archaeological context of the fi ndings, the majority of the objects were discovered inside the settlements and only one piece is part of the inventory of a tomb.

The antler and bone scepters have been discovered in different archaeological cultures since the Early Bronze Age, but the majority of the pieces are attributed to the Middle Bronze Age (the Monteoru, Wietenberg, Costișa, Otomani, Verbicioara cultures). For the Late Bronze Age we only know one item. The signification of such items is primarily related to the social symbolism, but they can also be interpreted as cult objects in the case of their utilization during religious rituals.

List of illustrations:

Fig. 1. Dissemination of the antler and bone scepters in România: 1 - Boarta; 2 - Bodeștii de Jos; 3 - Cicău; 4 - Lancrăm; 5 - Oradea; 6 - Racoș; 7 - Sărata Monteoru; 8 - Sibișeni; 9 - Ulmu; 10 - Verbicioara.
Fig. 2. Antler fragments utilized as support for the manufacture of the scepters.
Fig. 3. Tomb 71 from the necropolis no. 4 in Sărata Monteoru (after Bârzu 1989).
Fig. 4. Antler scepters: 1 - Boarta (after Popa, Ștefu 2009); 2 - Lancrăm (after Aldea 1973).
Fig. 5. Antler and bone scepters: 1 - Verbicioara (after Berciu, Morintz, Maximilian 1957); 2 - Sărata Monteoru (after Bârzu 1989); 3 - Ulmu (after Florescu 1991); 4 - Racoș (after Costea, Ștefănescu 2003); 5 - Cicău (after Winkler, Takács 1980); 6 - Oradea (after Fazecaș 2005); 7 - Bodeștii de Jos (after Munteanu 2010).
Fig. 6. Reconstitution of a scepter (drawing D. G. Spatariu).

Vasile Diaconu, Bogdan-Petru Niculică
Stone scepters belonging to the Bronze Age, discovered in Suceava County
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. V [XX], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
Vasile Diaconu, Mariana Sîrbu
Uncommon practice of re-use of Bronze Age stone axes
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XII [XXVII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
Vasile Diaconu
Bogdan Petru Niculică, Epoca bronzului în Podișul Sucevei, Suceava: Editura Karl A. Romstorfer, 2015, 622 p. ISBN 978-606-8698-06-9
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. X [XXV], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
Vasile Diaconu
Arheologia fără graniţe. Interviu cu cercetătorul Tiberiu Bader (Hochdorf)
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XIV [XXIX], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică, Chişinău, 2020
Vasile Diaconu
In memoriam Gheorghe Dumitroaia (23.04.1949-6.04.2016)
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. X [XXV], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică



 

 

Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age
  
  

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#Exhibit of the Month

One of the great technical achievements that revolutionized the idea of time and space, opening a new era in the history of communication, is telegraphy. It is based on the transmission of electrical signals through a cable over long distances, allowing people to communicate instantly...

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC