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#Exhibit of the Month

From the early days of Christianity, the cross meant not only an instrument of torture, but also a symbol of victory over death, a symbol of salvation. The object is made of silver, having the shape of a Byzantine cross with trapezoidal edges of the arms. The side arms and the one at the bottom seem to be turned inside a vessel (chalice (?)) with the trapezoidal "foot". The arms of the cross and of the "chalice" were ended with a decorative element in the shape of a sphere (drop). The cross has a decoration in relief, executed in the technique of filigree and granulation, consisting of drops, double and triple cords, circles with a drop in the center, and trefoils (?). In the center of the cross, at the intersection of the arms, there is a round mount with a cord-like edge, in which the pomegranate fruit is located. However, the main decorative element is the images of four peacocks turned to the right, with a snake in the beak, arranged on all the arms of the cross. The image of the peacocks is rendered in an artistic way, and their tails are stylized in the shape of a palmette.
The peacock, originated from India, due to its luxurious fan-shaped tail, was considered a symbol of the Sun. In ancient Greece, they were considered the sacred birds of the goddess Hera, and in ancient Rome they were considered the sacred birds of the goddess Juno. In Kievan Rus', the peacock (the Firebird) also symbolized the Sun. In the West, the peacock was considered a snake killer, and the iridescent colors of its tail were attributed to its ability to turn snake venom into solar substance. Since snakes in Iranian symbolism were considered enemies of the sun, it was believed that the peacock killed snakes, in order to create "eyes" from their saliva, iridescent with a bronze-green and gold-blue color on the feathers of its tail. Due to the bright splendor of the male peacock's tail, it has been compared with immortal gods and, therefore, with immortality. Peacocks are known as an emblem of greatness, royal authority, spiritual superiority, ideal creation.

In the early period of Christianity, the peacock was a symbol of love, resurrection, immortality, beauty, eternity of the soul, the all-seeing eye of the Church, and the peacock feather was the emblem of Saint Barbara. The image of peacocks with snakes in their beaks on the cross is not at all accidental; it symbolizes the victory of Christ over evil.

On the back side of the cross, traces of fixing are preserved, probably of a pin (missing), so the object served as a brooch (fibula), which was probably attached to the fabric. The piece is presumably dated back to the 9th-12th centuries.

The object has the following dimensions: height - 125 mm; width - 86 mm; weight - 47 g.


 
National Museum of History of Moldova
 

Publications Journal „Tyragetia"

Tyragetia, nr. IV-V

Tyragetia, nr. IV-V

Chișinău, 1997

SUMAR (SOMMAIRE)

I. Studii (Etudes)

• Nicolae Răileanu, Instituțiile muzeale din Moldova: reflecții pe marginea unei realități (Des Institutions muséales de Moldova: quelques réflexions une réalité)
• Andrei Eșanu, Unele considerații privind problema culturii românești în epoca Renașterii (sec. XVI-XVII) (Certaines considérations concernant le problème de la culture roumaine à l'époque de la Renaissance (XVI-XVII s.s.)
• Vlad D. Ghimpu, Biserici și mănăstiri moldovenești în Basarabia anilor 1457-1600 (Eglises et monastères moldaves en Bessarabie des années 1457-1600)
• Valentin Tomuleț, Unele probleme de discuție privind includerea Basarabiei în sistemul pieței interne ruse (anii 1812-1868) (Certains problèmes de diacission concernant l'inclusion de la Bessarabie dans le systhème du marché intérieur russe (1812-1868)
• Elena Postică, Partidul Libertății (Le Parti de la Libération)

II. Arheologie și istorie (Archeologie et Histoire)

• Nicolae Chetraru, Serghei Covalenco, Așezări paleolitice de lângă orășelul Otaci (Les habitats paléolitiques auprès de Otaci)
• Vsevolod Marchevlci, Așezarea Cucuteniană Stânca lui Harascu (La station cucuténienne Cuconeștii Vechi – Stânca lui Harascu)
• Ecaterina Abâzov, Eugen Clocico, Tumulul nr. 1 din necropola tumulară Chirileni (La nécropole tumulaire près du village Chirileni)
• Nicolae Chetraru, Natalia Mateevici, Cercetările tumulului nr. 45 din raionul Dubăsari (Les recherches de la tumulte nr. 45 près de Dubăsari)
• Alexandru Levinschi, Despre un grup de necropole ale culturii Sântana de Mureș-Cerneahov din interfluviul Nistru-Prut (Au sujet d'un group de necropoles de la culture Sântana de Mureș-Cherneahov entre Nistrou- Prouth)
• Alexandru Levinschi, „O fibulă particulară germanică din epoca imperialo-romană găsită în Basarabia”: retrospecții la evaluarea savantului N. Moroșan („Une fibules particulière gérmanique de l'époque imperial - romaine trouvée en Bessarabie”: rétrospections aux evaluations du savant N. Moroșan)
• Nicolae Telnov, Tatiana Reaboi, Cercetarea orașului Hoardei de Aur Costești - Gârlea (Recherchs arhéologiques dans la viile de Horde d'Or Costești - Gârlea)
• Pavel Bârnea, Ecaterina Abâzov, Platoul de bronz de la Orheiul Vechi (Le plateau de bronze de Orheiul Vechi)
• Pavel Bârnea, Tatiana Reaboi, Obiecte de proveniență orientală la Orheiul Vechi (Objets de provenance orientale a Orheiul Vechi)
• Vlad D. Ghimpu, Cruci - encolpioane din colecția Muzeului Național de Istorie a Moldovei (Petites croix doubles reliquaires de collections du Musée National d'Histoire de Moldova)
• Grigore Cemârtan, Răspândirea, densitatea și variabilitatea cerbului nobil (cervus elaphus L.) pe teritoriul interfluviilor Nistru-Prut în holocen (La diffusion, la denslté et la variabilite du cervus elaphus (Lat) sur le territorie entre le Pruth-Nistru en holocène)
• Minai Onilă, File din istoria satului Isacova (Pages d'histoire du village Isacova)
• Serghei Klimovski, Ivan Movcean, Andrei Reutov, Urme ale volohilor pe dealul vechiului Kiev (Les traces des volohs sur la colline de l'Ancien Kiev)
• Valentina Eșanu, „Cazania” Mitropolitului Varlaam în Dobrogea (La „Casanie” du Mitropole Varlaam de Dobrogea)
• Irina Gonciarov, Moneda moldo-valahă de la 1771-1774 (La monnaie moldo-valah de 1771-1774)
• Maria Hasnaș, Unele considerații privind istoria fotografiei în Basarabia (Certains considérations concernant l'histoire de la photographie en Bessarabie)
• Aliona Niculiță, Organizarea judecătorească a Basarabiei conform legii din 1818 (L'organisatbn judiciaire en Bessarabie d'apris la loi de 1818)
• Maria Danilov, Istoricul tipăririi și arealul de răspândire a Bibliei românești de la Petersburg (1819) (L'historique de la publication et de l'aréale de la diffusion de la Bible Roumaine de Sanct-Petersburg 1819)
• Maria Danilov, Enigma unui manuscris (L'enigme d'un manuscrit)
• Ana Grițco, Din istoria poștei și mărcii poștale în Basarabia (De l'histoire de la poste et du timbre postal en Bessarabie)
• Ion Stratulat, Coloniile germane din sudul Basarabiei (Les provinces germaines de la Bessarabie du Sud)
• Valentin Tomuleț, Activitatea comercială a negustorilor armeni în Basarabia în prima treime a sec. XIX (L'activité commérciale des marchands arméniens en Bessarabie dans le premier tiers du XIX s.)
• Liubov Malahov, Societatea Istorico-Arheologică Bisericească din Basarabia (90 de ani de la inaugurare) (La societe Historique-Archeologique d'Eglise de Bessarabie (90 ans depuis son inaugurations)
• Elena Postică, Armata Neagră. Organizație patriotică de rezistență, sau „bandă teroristă antisovietică?" (L'Armee Noire - organisations patriotique de résistence ou „bande terroriste antisoviétique?"
• Aurelia Cornețchi, Din istoricul Liceului de fete din Soroca (Pages historiques du Lycée defilles de Soroca)
• Elvira Vacula, Activitatea Camerei de comerț și industrie din Chișinău în anii 1921-1930 (Contribution concernant l'activité de la Chambre Commérciale et Industrielle de Bessarabie)
• Tamara Gubcovschi, Familia Racoviță: o soartă vitregă (La familie Racovrță: un sort eruel)

III. Muzeografie și memorialistică (Museographie et memoriaux)

• Măria Hasnaș, Fotografia - document și exponat. Retrospectivă (La photographie - document et exponat. Rétrospective)
• Eugenia Borodac, Tamara Stamatov, Porțelanuri de Saxonia în colecția Muzeului Național de Istorie a Moldovei (Des porcelaines de Saxonie dans la collection du Musée National d'Histoire de Moldova)
• Liubov Reprințev, Colecția de ceasuri din fondurile MNIM (Collection de montres des fonds du Musée National d'Histoire de Moldova)
• Ludmila Năstase, Constantin Crăciunescu (file din biografia unui medic basarabean) (Constantin Crăciunescu. Pages biographiques d'un médicin bessarabien)
• Măria Evdochimov, Petru Ungurean - pagini din viață și activitate (Petru Ungurean - pages de la vie et son activité)

IV. Cronică. Recenzii (Chronique. Comptes - Rendus)

• Alexandru Levinschi, Un tezaur monetar de la Stolniceni (considerații preliminare) (Un tresor monnaitaire de Stolniceni (Information préliminaire)
• Ion Negrei, Anuarul Muzeului Național - o carte de istorie a Moldovei (L'Anuaire du Musée National - livre - d'histoire de Moldova)
• Vlad D. Ghimpu, Ion Tentiuc - Populația din Moldova Centrală în secolele Xl-XIII, Ed. Helios, lași, 1996, 280 p. (Ion Tentfuc - La population de la Moldavie Centrale pendant Ies XI - XIII siecles, Ed. Helios, lassy, 1996, 280 p.)



 

 


Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age

  
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#Exhibit of the Month

From the early days of Christianity, the cross meant not only an instrument of torture, but also a symbol of victory over death, a symbol of salvation. The object is made of silver, having the shape of a Byzantine cross with trapezoidal edges of the arms. The side arms and the one at the bottom seem to be turned inside a vessel (chalice (?)) with the trapezoidal "foot". The arms of the cross and of the "chalice" were ended with a decorative element in the shape of a sphere (drop). The cross has a decoration in relief, executed in the technique of filigree and granulation, consisting of drops, double and triple cords, circles with a drop in the center, and trefoils (?). In the center of the cross, at the intersection of the arms, there is a round mount with a cord-like edge, in which the pomegranate fruit is located...

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