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#Exhibit of the Month

From the early days of Christianity, the cross meant not only an instrument of torture, but also a symbol of victory over death, a symbol of salvation. The object is made of silver, having the shape of a Byzantine cross with trapezoidal edges of the arms. The side arms and the one at the bottom seem to be turned inside a vessel (chalice (?)) with the trapezoidal "foot". The arms of the cross and of the "chalice" were ended with a decorative element in the shape of a sphere (drop). The cross has a decoration in relief, executed in the technique of filigree and granulation, consisting of drops, double and triple cords, circles with a drop in the center, and trefoils (?). In the center of the cross, at the intersection of the arms, there is a round mount with a cord-like edge, in which the pomegranate fruit is located. However, the main decorative element is the images of four peacocks turned to the right, with a snake in the beak, arranged on all the arms of the cross. The image of the peacocks is rendered in an artistic way, and their tails are stylized in the shape of a palmette.
The peacock, originated from India, due to its luxurious fan-shaped tail, was considered a symbol of the Sun. In ancient Greece, they were considered the sacred birds of the goddess Hera, and in ancient Rome they were considered the sacred birds of the goddess Juno. In Kievan Rus', the peacock (the Firebird) also symbolized the Sun. In the West, the peacock was considered a snake killer, and the iridescent colors of its tail were attributed to its ability to turn snake venom into solar substance. Since snakes in Iranian symbolism were considered enemies of the sun, it was believed that the peacock killed snakes, in order to create "eyes" from their saliva, iridescent with a bronze-green and gold-blue color on the feathers of its tail. Due to the bright splendor of the male peacock's tail, it has been compared with immortal gods and, therefore, with immortality. Peacocks are known as an emblem of greatness, royal authority, spiritual superiority, ideal creation.

In the early period of Christianity, the peacock was a symbol of love, resurrection, immortality, beauty, eternity of the soul, the all-seeing eye of the Church, and the peacock feather was the emblem of Saint Barbara. The image of peacocks with snakes in their beaks on the cross is not at all accidental; it symbolizes the victory of Christ over evil.

On the back side of the cross, traces of fixing are preserved, probably of a pin (missing), so the object served as a brooch (fibula), which was probably attached to the fabric. The piece is presumably dated back to the 9th-12th centuries.

The object has the following dimensions: height - 125 mm; width - 86 mm; weight - 47 g.


 
National Museum of History of Moldova
 

Publications Journal „Tyragetia"

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XII [XXVII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XII [XXVII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică

Chișinău, 2018

Researches


Михаил Видейко
Crises and early urbanization processes in Europe

Vasile Iarmulschi
Überlegungen zur Chronologie und Periodisierung den Siedlungen der Poieneşti-Lucaşeuca-Kultur

Liana Oţa
Sarmatian children graves in Wallachia and Moldavia

Papers and surveys


Оксана Вотякова
The industry of Layer II of the Korolevo site in Transcarpathia

Игорь Пиструил
Complex of flint tools from Zaliznichnoe site (based on materials collected in 1970)

Наталья Бурдо
Anthropomorphic figurines from early Bronze Age burial mounds in the Bug-Dnieper interfluves and the Dnieper area

Elena Izbitser
Bulls and Wagons: an “innovative” approach to representing archaeological data

Игорь Сапожников
The beginning of the study of Budjak burial mounds: historiography and cartography

Vasile Diaconu, Mariana Sîrbu
Uncommon practice of re-use of Bronze Age stone axes

Simina Margareta Stanc, Vasile Diaconu, Luminiţa Bejenaru
Animal Resources in the Economy of the Noua Culture (Bronze Age) Communities: case study on the settlement at Crasnaleuca (Botosani County, Romania)

Виктор Гребенников
Settlements, sites and hoards of the Steppe Pobuzhye of the Late Bronze Age (materials for the archaeological map)

Игорь Сапожников, Юрий Болтрик
Yagorlyk mounds near the Dniester: history of study, cartography and topography

Eugen Uşurelu, Andrei Nicic
Findings of metal objects of the Bronze and Iron Ages on the territory of the Republic of Moldova

Роман Зимовец, Сергей Скорый, Виталий Окатенко
Bronze matrix from Bilsk forthill: about Central Asian motifs in early Scythian animal style of Northern Black Sea Cost

Octavian Munteanu, Nicolae Batog, Valeriu Prohniţchi
The Getic defensive system of Butuceni-West: details regarding the West No. 2 defensive line trajectory

Денис Бондаренко
The Viktorоvka-I settlement of the Late Archaic time

Sergiu Matveev, Ana Boldureanu
A bronze Macedonian coin from the village of Tudora (Ştefan Vodă District)

George Dan Hânceanu
Les Bastarnes de Roşiori. Les résultats de la campagne archéologique de l’année 2016

Ion Tentiuc, Valeriu Bubulici
An incineration burial in metal urn (2nd-3rd c. AD) discovered at Iagorlîc, Dubăsari

Vlad D. Ghimpu
Canonical rules and the actual orientation of altars in early Christian churches. Ancient and early medieval places of worship in Romanian lands

Михаил Веревкин, Юрий Пятницкий
On the Issues of the Technical Examination of Oriental Silver in the Collection of the State Hermitage Museum

Звездана Доде
Parts of the Female Costume from a Golden Horde Grave of the Tingutinsky I Kurgan Cemetery. Conservation and preliminary conclusions

Игорь Прохненко, Мария Жиленко
Knight’s tombstone from Korolevo castle of Nyaláb

Дмитрий Янов
The hoard of coins of 15th-16th centuries from the collection of Local Lore Museum in Vylkove

Алексей Фурасьев
“The Great Migration Period” – a new exhibition in the State Hermitage Museum

Paper and book review


Mihail Băţ
Г.И. Смирнова, М.Ю. Вахтина, М.Т. Кашуба, Е.Г. Старкова, Городище Немиров на реке Южный Буг. По материалам раскопок в XX веке из коллекций Государственного Эрмитажа и Научного архива ИИМК РАН. Приложения: К.Б. Калинина, А. Закосьцельна, М. Кершнер и Х. Моммзен, С.В. Хаврин, Санкт-Петербург: Невская книжная типография, 2018, 336 с. ISBN: 978-5-9909872-2-7

Homage


Dan Matei
Profesorul Mihai Bărbulescu

 


 

 


Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age

  
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#Exhibit of the Month

From the early days of Christianity, the cross meant not only an instrument of torture, but also a symbol of victory over death, a symbol of salvation. The object is made of silver, having the shape of a Byzantine cross with trapezoidal edges of the arms. The side arms and the one at the bottom seem to be turned inside a vessel (chalice (?)) with the trapezoidal "foot". The arms of the cross and of the "chalice" were ended with a decorative element in the shape of a sphere (drop). The cross has a decoration in relief, executed in the technique of filigree and granulation, consisting of drops, double and triple cords, circles with a drop in the center, and trefoils (?). In the center of the cross, at the intersection of the arms, there is a round mount with a cord-like edge, in which the pomegranate fruit is located...

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