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#Exhibit of the Month

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The exposed object, an "askos" type ceramic vessel, comes from the tumulus necropolis near the village of Ciumai, Taraclia district. The vessel was discovered in 2015 in a cenotaph tomb attributed to the Jamnaja culture, dated to the early Bronze Age (ca. 3300-2600 BC).

The vessel, with an obviously asymmetrical configuration, is hand-moulded from quality clay paste, having a smooth brown surface with gray spots. The body of the vessel is provided with a pronounced protrusion and a truncated neck with a wider opening towards the mouth. The vessel has a stem and is ornamented with three pairs of symmetrically placed relief appliqués. The height of the bowl is 15.5 cm, the diameter of the mouth is 11.4 cm, the diameter of the body is 15 cm and the diameter of the base is 7.5 cm. Such vessels in the archaeological literature are known as "askos" vessels, the respective term being of ancient Greek origin, denoting one of the primitive containers of the period - the bellows made of animal skin.

In prehistoric times, among some peoples, the bellows was transposed into ceramics, in these cases the basic features of the archaic leather vessel were preserved, acquiring a prominent convex shape with a stem and a flat bottom. From the original appearance of the bellows, the asymmetric mouth corresponding to the animal's neck has been preserved, and sometimes three or four legs, corresponding to the appendages of the flayed skin from the animal's legs. These vessels have lost their original zoomorphic character, entering as a new form in the inventory of Neo-Eneolithic ceramics. The first vessels of this type are attested in Greece, in the early Neolithic (ca. 5000-4500 BC) having the shape of cups or cups. In the Neo-Eneolithic Carpatho-Balkan cultures, the type of Aegean askos of short or tall form, with or without legs and with a handle, is found. Less often, they are provided with two mouths (one for filling and one for emptying) or they are off-center and provided with strangely shaped mouths. In the space between the Carpathians and the Dnieper, only tall forms of simple askos, without zoomorphic elements, are known. Askos-type vessels are present in various prehistoric cultures, especially in Southeast Europe and Anatolia.

Being often discovered in association with cult inventory, askos vessels could be an important indicator of use in religious ritual practices. Along with the zoomorphic, anthropomorphic and rhyton-type vessels (roughly conical container from which, in some ceremonies, liquids were drunk or poured), the askos were included in the category of vessels intended for worship, being related to libations (ritual act that consisted of tasting and then pouring a cup of wine, milk, etc. as homage to the deity).

Virtual Tour




Ottoman Coins in Moldova from 1512 to 1603

Ottoman Coins in Moldova from 1512 to 1603

Series Biblioteca “Tyragetia” XXIV, Chișinău, 2013. 191 p.

The monograph is dedicated to the peculiarities of penetration and circulation of Ottoman coins in historical Moldova during 1512-1603. The study covers the period of strengthening the country's dependence on the Ottoman Porte (1512) and the establishment of Ottoman suzerainty (1538) and lasted until the early years of the 17th century when after massive devaluation of Ottoman akches the quantity of Ottoman coins in the market of Romanian principalities has significantly reduced.

The source basis of the work includes the Ottoman coins of 1512-1603 discovered in the area of medieval Moldavia as well as those from regions, which were under direct Ottoman jurisdiction, like Akkerman or Bender. There is used Ottoman numismatic material found by researchers until 2007, including a number of older findings reviewed in the light of modern science and personal research on some unpublished hoards and isolated finds. Most of the materials analyzed and included in the study are from collections of the Chisinau museums: the National Museum of History of Moldova, the Museum of Archaeology of the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Moldova and the National Museum of Ethnography and Natural History. There were also included Ottoman hoards and coins from Romanian collections, which have been explored by the author due to the kindness and goodwill of heads of institutions and curators. There were used original materials from the collection of the Numismatic Cabinet of the „Vasile Parvan" Institute of Archaeology, was revised the structure of the Arsura hoard (Vaslui County) owned by the National Museum of History of Romania in Bucharest, were identified some objects from the collections of the National Museum of History of Moldova in Iasi, Barlad and from the Museum of Vaslui County.

The work is divided into six chapters, some of which are divided into subchapters. Issues of coins are presented in a classical order: the gold coins, than the silver ones and, finally, made of a simple metal.

Chapter I contains the history of research; there are highlighted the main stages and studies dedicated to Ottoman coins that circulated in medieval Moldavia. Chapter II presents the development of the Ottoman monetary system from early mangirs emitted during the rule of the founder of the Ottoman Empire - Osman to the early 16th century. Chapter III examines gold coins (altyns); there are presented typology and chronology of these issues as well as the analysis of stages of penetration and circulation of altyns in historical Moldova and the list of findings. The next chapter describes Ottoman silver coins (akches and dirhams). There are given types of akches and their chronology, already known or proposed by the author, presented separately for each sultan: Selim I, Süleyman I, Selim II, Murad III and Mehmed III. There were highlighted several distinct stages of penetration of akches into Moldavia based on political and military events in the region. The list of silver issues includes isolated akches and dirhams as well as hoards of these coins. Chapter V presents Ottoman copper coins and silver counterfeits and imitations. The study showed the existence of local production of fakes and imitations of Ottoman akches. There is presented the catalogue of such findings in Moldova.

The last chapter includes an analysis of the role of the Ottoman coins in Moldavian economy in the 16th century.



 

 

Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age
  
  

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#Exhibit of the Month

The exposed object, an "askos" type ceramic vessel, comes from the tumulus necropolis near the village of Ciumai, Taraclia district. The vessel was discovered in 2015 in a cenotaph tomb attributed to the Jamnaja culture, dated to the early Bronze Age (ca. 3300-2600 BC)...

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC