EN RO















#Exhibit of the Month

Deer antlers, as well as bones, teeth and shells of mollusks, belong to the category of hard materials of animal origin, which for a long time served as raw materials for prehistoric and protohistoric communities to make tools, weapons, containers, handles, as well as objects of prestige (sceptres) or adornments (necklaces, pendants, clothing accessories), certainly bearing a symbolic load.

The National Museum of History of Moldova has a valuable collection of products made of deer antler, the chronological framework of which covers a very wide period of time, from the Paleolithic era to the late Middle Ages. Based on this, and also taking into account the significance of the beginning of May (May 1 – International Labor Day), we present to our visitors a revolutionary type of tool, very useful, which is directly related to the development of agriculture and prehistoric societies. Antler pickaxes are the tools that contributed to what we call the Neolithic revolution, when there was a transition from hunter-gatherer hominids to sedentary people, agriculturists and cattle breeders, depending on the specifics of the region. Cucuteni agricultural human communities have a long tradition of exploiting Cervus elaphus (deer) resources, especially antlers.

The object comes from the Brânzeni III – Țiganca settlement (Edineț district), a site discovered in 1968 by the archaeologist Nicolae Chetraru, attributed to stage CII of the Tripolye culture. An unaffected part of the site was completely explored in 1970-1972 by Vsevolod Markevich; during the research 37 surface dwellings with platforms were found, revealing a new cultural aspect within the Cucuteni culture – Brânzeni, a cultural and chronological phenomenon that marks the beginning of the final stage of the Eneolithic era, the end of the 4th millennium BC.

The pickaxe hammer, dual-functional product made of the basal part of the main axis of the antler, cleaned and polished, without traces of the basal part, without rosettes and other secondary horn beams. The surface with traces of cuts is polished, in some places with strong luster. The object has a round transverse hole, slightly oblique, with a cylindrical section, located in the middle, and has a pronounced bluntness, chips and a longitudinal crack from antiquity. The active parts – the head and slightly oblique tip, completely kept – are relatively well preserved, with traces of wear and cracks in places due to intensive use.

These traces give us a history of this object, which was originally, most likely, an axe hammer, intended to split, cut, and strike, but with the wear of its blade turned into a pickaxe hammer, used both for percussion activities and for loosening the earth. The object was used as a working tool, but most likely also as a weapon.

Dimensions: L.: 113 mm; W.: 56 mm; thickness: 44 mm: Hole diameter: 20x22 mm.

Virtual Tour




The population of Central Moldova in the 10th-13th centuries

The population of Central Moldova in the 10th-13th centuries

Biblioteca „Tyragetia” XXVIII, Chişinău, 2017, 323 p.

The monograph represents an important synthesis of the historical, social-economic, political, demographic and cultural processes from the development of the first regional and state-level formations of the Romanian population in the Carpathian-Nistrian area in the 10th-13th centuries. The book is based on a thorough research of archaeological and written documentary sources (Byzantine, Scandinavian, Arabic and Old Russian), of the critical approach of historical-archaeological concepts regarding the population that lived in the forest steppe East-Carpathian area. Besides the topo-planigraphic research of settlements, fortified structures and of housing and burial complexes, the book approaches systematically and integratively the basic occupations - agriculture, animal husbandry and crafts, of which, by magnitude, dynamism and economic importance, iron metallurgy is distinguished. The phenomena related to the development of transit trade and monetary circulation are analyzed in full. The presence of tool and weapon deposits, silverware hoardings with Islamic and Byzantine coins and ornaments, the increase in the number and diversity of types of iron weapons, are related to the penetration and stationing in the region of Scandinavians, as well as craftsmen, soldiers and merchants, which transit the space from the Baltic Sea to the Black Sea on old river trade routes, attracted by the fast and wealth of the great economic, political and cultural centers of the time - Byzantine Constantinople and Baghdad of the Muslim caliphate.

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

Chapter I. HISTORIOGRAPHY

1.1. Soviet historiography

1.2. Romanian historiography

Chapter II. SETTLEMENTS, DWELLINGS AND HOUSEHOLD ANNEXES

2.1. Topography, planography and stratigraphy of settlements

2.2. Characteristics of dwellings

2.3. Household annexes (hearths, ovens, auxiliary pits)

Chapter III. MAIN OCCUPATIONS

3.1. Agriculture and animal husbandry

3.1.1. Agriculture

3.1.2. Animal husbandry

3.2. Crafts and auxiliary occupations

3.2.1. Metallurgy

3.2.1.1. Acquiring iron ore

3.2.1.2. Installations and remnants of metallurgical activity

3.2.2. Ironwork

3.2.2.1. Ironwork tools

3.2.2.2. Iron products

3.2.3. Processing of copper and bronze

3.2.3.1. Molds and metal casting vessels

3.2.3.2. Pieces of colored metal

3.2.4. Pottery

3.2.4.1. Ceramic manufacturing technology

3.2.4.2. Ceramic burning installations

3.2.4.3. Ceramic forms

3.2.5. Other crafts (working wood, stone, leather, bone, fibers)

3.2.6. Auxiliary activities (hunting, fishing, harvesting)

3.3. Trade and coin circulation

3.3.1. Imported ceramics

3.3.2. Glass and glass paste articles

3.3.3. Coins and coin circulation

3.3.3.1. Islamic coin

3.3.3.2. Byzantine coin

3.3.3.3. European coin

IV. SPIRITUAL LIFE, FUNERAL PRACTICES

4.1. Spiritual life

4.1.1. Alphabetiform signs

4.1.2. Testimonies of Christian spirituality

4.1.3. Christian churches

4.2. Funeral practices

4.2.1. Funerary rite

4.2.2. Funeral ritual

4.2.3. Destroyed tombs. Pagan practices

4.2.4. Findings from the funeral complexes

V. FORMS OF SOCIAL AND POLITICAL ORGANIZATIONS AND RELATIONS OF THE AUTOCHTHONES WITH THE BYZANTINE, SLAVIC AND TURANIC WORLD

5.1. Forms of social and political organization

5.2. East-Carpathian Romanity and the Byzantium

5.3. Romanians from the East of the Carpathians and their contacts with the late Slavs

5.4. Relations between the autochthones and the Turanics

CONCLUSIONS

Bibliography

Abstract

List of illustrations

Appendix (Tables, Diagrams, Maps)



 

 

Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age

  
May 18, 2022 – December 31, 2022
 
Over 2500 pieces made of precious metals with historic, artistic and symbolic value
  
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#Exhibit of the Month

Deer antlers, as well as bones, teeth and shells of mollusks, belong to the category of hard materials of animal origin, which for a long time served as raw materials for prehistoric and protohistoric communities to make tools, weapons, containers, handles, as well as objects of prestige (sceptres) or adornments (necklaces, pendants, clothing accessories), certainly bearing a symbolic load...

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

menu
The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC