EN RO
National Museum of History of Moldova
Read Mode















#Exhibit of the Month

It is a sports trophy obtained at an inter-school oina (a bat-and-ball game) competition in interwar Bessarabia. We don't know which schools participated in this competition, nor the venue, we only know that one of the winners received the second prize and that the event was held on May 13, 1934. In this way we learn about the existence of different sports competitions organized by schools, including the oina game. Oina is a beautiful and complex sports game that promotes the development of body and spirit, courage and the desire for self-improvement. Oina is a treasure of the Romanian people, which must be sacredly kept and passed on to future generations.

The oină or hoina game is considered a Romanian national sports game having a history of at least six centuries. The oina game is practiced continuously, according to the chronicles and deeds of the time at least from the 14th century, being mentioned for the first time in 1364, during the reign of Vlaicu Vodă. The game requires complex sports qualities (good running speed, fast reflexes in self-defense movements against the balls, accuracy in throwing and hitting the ball with a bat or stick). Oina is a sport that identifies us to the same extent as trânta, our national wrestling. The game becomes attractive among young people in the villages, enters the school curriculum through physical education lessons. Through the Education Reform of 1898, as well as through other ministerial decisions, Education Minister Spiru Haret introduces the compulsory oina lessons in all schools, as well as the annual oina competitions.

On May 9, 1899, in Bucharest, the first national oina championship was organized, the teams being made up of high school students. The winner was the team of Nicolae Bălcescu High School from Brăila.

In 1912, the Federation of the Romanian Sports Society (Bucharest) was created, which consisted of 13 sports commissions including the oina commission.

After the Union of 1918, the Federation of the Romanian Sports Society was reorganized in 1923, including the other oina sports commissions of Transylvania, Bukovina and Bessarabia.

In 1932, the Romanian Oina Federation was founded.

Click here for a Virtual Tour of the Museum

 
National Museum of History of Moldova
 

Publications Journal „Tyragetia"   vol. VIII [XXIII], nr. 1

Akinakai on the western frontiers of Scythia. Scythian swords and daggers from the territory of the Republic of Moldova
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

Akinakai on the western frontiers of Scythia. Scythian swords and daggers from the territory of the Republic of Moldova

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VIII [XXIII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică

Papers devoted to the typology of certain categories of the material culture need the close cooperation with the local schemes. A change of researching “optics” is likely to have a positive effect on the process of studiing the general trends in the material, if this process of research is closely linked with the base of any typological constructions – with the spatial and chronological relations analysis. Besides the publication of new stray fi nds and partial republication of already known fi nds from the burial complexes, the main goal of this work is the checking of certain typological tendentions of such category of Scythian culture as akinakai (Scythian swords and daggers) of the Carpathian-Dniester region. A geographical division of Carpathian-Dniester region is proposed: Middle Dniester (Bukovinian) group, Eastern Carpathian (Neamț) group, Siret-Dniester (Moldavian) group, Lower Dniester and Lower Danube groups. Chronologically, the massive of akinakai of Carpathian-Dniester region could be divided into three groups: Early Scythian (650-550 BC), Middle Scythian (550-450 BC) and Classic Scythian (450-300 BC). The following trends connected with Scythian swords and daggers were noticed: Early Scythian burials with akinakai concentrate in Bukovina and stray finds in Moldova, Middle Scythian burials – are grouping in Moldavian and the stray fi nds – in Neamț group, and the Classical Scythian burials with akinakai are presented only in Lower Dnister and Lower Danube groups.

List of illustrations:

Fig. 1. Scythian swords and daggers from burials of Dniester-Prut region (National Museum of History of Moldova): 1 - Purcari, t. 7, gr. 3; 2 - Talmaza, t. 9, gr. 1; 3 - Pârjolteni; 4 - Suruceni; 5 - Olanești region (Tudorovo-Palanka).
Fig. 2. Stray fi nds of akinakai from Dniester-Prut region: 1 - Hansca; 2 - Lipnik; 3 - Larguța; 4 - Nisporeni region; 5 - Vatici; 6 - Susleni; 7 - Volodeni.
Fig. 3. Akinakai from destroyed tumuli of Navyrnets cemetery (after Donici 1928).
Fig. 4. Distribution of akinakai in Eastern Europe: А - chronological distribution of Scythian akinakai; В - akinakai of Carpathian-Dniester region.
Fig. 5. Distribution of akinakai in Carpathian-Dniester region. Local groups: I - Hungarian; II - Transilvanian; III - South-Carpathian; IV - Bulgarian; V - Carpathian-Dniester (Va - Middle Dniester (Bukovinian) group; Vb - Eastern Carpathian (Neamț) group; Vc - Siret-Dniester (Moldavian) group; Vd - Lower Dniester group; Ve - Lower Danube group). 1 - Sokirintsy; 2 - Russkie Fol’varki (Kamenets-Podol’skiy); 3 - Nelipovtsy; 4 - Lipnic; 5 - Volodeni; 6 - Cristinești; 7 - Ibănești; 8 - Cajvana; 9 - Zăicești; 10 - Ghindăoani; 11 - Văratec (Filioara); 12 - Agapia; 13 - Petricani; 14 - Moțca; 15 - Boureni; 16 - Miroslovești; 17 - Muncelu de Sus; 18 - Teșcureni; 19 - Vatici; 20 - Lucășeuca; 21 - Susleni; 22 - Mikhaylovka; 23 - Trebujeni; 24 - Suruceni; 25 - Hansca; 26 - Pârjolteni; 27 - Larguța; 28 - Moșna; 29 - Cozia; 30 - Comarna; 31 - Mircești; 32 - Dănești; 33 - Vaslui; 34 - Poienești; 35 - Rădeni; 36 - Bâcu; 37 - Dumești; 38 - Mileștii de Sus; 39 - Nănești; 40 - Găiceana; 41 - Lichitișeni; 42 - Suseni; 43 - Buciumeni; 44 - Bălăbănești; 45 - Mânzătești; 46 - Gănești; 47 - Măcișeni; 48 - Chiscani; 49 - Celic-Dere; 50 - Murighiol; 51 - Ismail; 52 - Čaush; 53 - Plavni; 54 - Artsiz; 55 - Diviziya; 56 - Nikolaevka; 57 - Mayaki; 58 - Tudorovo-Palanka; 59 - Dachnoe (Gnilyakovo); 60 - Purcari; 61 - Talmaza; 62 - Kotovsk; 63 - Năvârneț; 64 - Lenkovtsy; 65 - Nisporeni. (A-C - graves (А - 1 ex., В - 2 ex., С - 3 ex. and more); D - stray finds; E - possible graves).
Fig. 6. Distribution of akinakai of Early Scythian culture. Kelermes type.
Fig. 7. Distribution of akinakai of Middle Scythian culture. Vettersfelde type.
Fig. 8. Distribution of akinakai of Classic Scythian culture. Solokha type.
Fig. 9. Akinakai of Middle Dniester (Bukovinian) (А, 1-14) and Eastern Carpathian (Neamț) (В, 15-21) group. 1 - Lipnic; 2 - Cajvana, t. 3, gr. 1; 3, 6, 7 - Zăicești, gr.?; 4, 5 - Cristinești; 8 - Volodeni; 9 - Nelipovtsy; 10 - Sokirintsy; 11 - Ibănești; 12 - Russkie Fol’varki (Kamenets-Podol’skiy); 13 - Lenkovtsy, t. 1; 14 - Cajvana, t.7; 15 - Muncelu de Sus; 16 - Boureni; 17 - Văratec (Filioara); 18 - Ghindăoani; 19 - Miroslovești; 20 - Moțca; 21 - Petricani.
Fig. 10. Akinakai of Siret-Dniester (Moldavian) group (beginning): 1 - Vatici; 2 - Susleni; 3 - Bâcu, gr.; 4 - Moșna, gr.?; 5 - Nisporeni region; 6 - Dumești; 7 - Kotovsk; 8 - Pârjolteni, gr.; 9 - Gănești; 10 - Bălăbănești; 11 - Comarna, gr.?; 12 - Măcișeni; 13, 17 - Năvârneț, t.?; 14 - Suseni; 15 - Dănești; 16 - Trebujeni; 18 - Agapia, gr.?; 19, 20 - Cozia „Voloacă Mică”, gr.?.
Fig. 11. Akinakai of Siret-Dniester (Moldavian) group (ending): 21 - Mikhaylovka; 22 - Suruceni, gr.; 23 - Hansca; 24 - Mileștii de Sus, gr.; 25, 31, 38 - Cozia; 26 - Lucășeuca; 27 - Mânzătești; 28 - Nănești; 29, 34 - Găiceana; 30 - Rădeni; 32 - Vaslui, gr. 1973 г.; 33 - Buciumeni; 35 - Mircești; 36 - Larguța; 37 - Lichitișeni; 39 - Teșcureni; 40, 41 - Poienești, gr.
Fig. 12. Akinakai of Lower Danube group: 1 - Celic-Dere, t. 10а; 2 - Celic-Dere, t. 11; 3 - Celic-Dere, t. 44, gr. 1; 4 - Čaush, t. 12, gr. 1; 5 - Čaush, t. 15, gr. 1; 6 - Čaush, t. 22; 7 - Plavni, t. 24, gr. 1; 8, 12-15, 17, 18 - Celic-Dere; 9 - Ismail (Poydovka), t.; 10 - Murighiol; 11 - Chiscani, gr.; 16 - Celic-Dere, s. II, t. 2; 19 - Medgidia.
Fig. 13. Akinakai of Lower Dniester group: 1 - Artsiz, t.1, gr. 13; 2 - Talmaza, t. 9, gr. 1; 3 - Nikolaevka II, gr. 8; 4 - Nikolaevka I, gr. 3; 5 - Tudorovo-Palanka, gr.; 6 - Purcari, t. 7, gr. 3; 7 - Divizia, t. 20, gr. 6; 8 - Mayaki, gr. G2; 9 - Dachnoe (Gnilyakovo); 10 - Nikolaevka II, gr. 7.


 

 


Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age

  
  
Come to Museum! Discover the History!
  
Visit museum
Visit museum
Summer schedule: daily
10am – 6pm.

Winter schedule: daily
10am – 5pm.
Closed on Fridays.
Entrance fees:  adults - 10 MDL, pensioners, adults with moderate disabilities / disability of the 3rd degree, students - 5 MDL, school students - 2 MDL. Free access: enlisted men (...)

WiFi Free Wi-Fi Zone in the museum: In the courtyard of the National History Museum of Moldova there is Wi-Fi Internet access for visitors.








Ask us a question now!






#Exhibit of the Month

It is a sports trophy obtained at an inter-school oina (a bat-and-ball game) competition in interwar Bessarabia. We don't know which schools participated in this competition, nor the venue, we only know that one of the winners received the second prize and that the event was held on May 13, 1934. In this way we learn about the existence of different sports competitions organized by schools, including the oina game. Oina is a beautiful and complex sports game that promotes the development of body and spirit, courage and the desire for self-improvement. Oina is a treasure of the Romanian people, which must be sacredly kept and passed on to future generations...

Read More >>

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2020 National Museum of History of Moldova
31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

menu