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#Exhibit of the Month

The item is the lower part of a leg of a festive table made of white and gray marble. In the upper part, it has a protrusion, similar to a Doric capital, on the horizontal platform of which a square recess is engraved, designed to fix the second part of the leg (upper). The lower part of the leg is made in an anthropomorphic style, and, in our opinion, there are two variants of identifying the depicted character. The first involves the image of the head of the young Heracles (Heracles - Ἡρακλῆς) (beardless), the most favorite hero of antiquity, wearing on his head the skin of the Nemean lion - Λέων της Νεμέας, a vicious monster from Greek mythology who lived in Nemea and was eventually killed by Heracles. The first labor of Heracles, of the twelve set by King Eurystheus (his cousin), was to kill the Nemean lion and bring his skin to the king. It is also known from Greek mythology that the lion of Nemea took the form of a beautiful woman in order to seduce the inhabitants of neighboring villages, who wanted to save the girl from danger. Upon entering the cave, a man saw the woman, who usually pretended to be wounded, and rushed to help her. When he approached her, the woman turned into a lion and killed him. Then the lion devoured the man, giving his bones to Hades - ᾍδης, the god of Hell, who lived in the kingdom of shadows. The second version of the anthropomorphic image interpretation suggests Alexander the Great, king of Macedonia in the second half of the 4th century BC, one of the most famous heroes of the Greek world, who sometimes is depicted as Hercules - wearing a lion's skin. Some researchers consider the custom of wearing the skin of a slain lion a sign of royal power. The word βασιλεύς itself, translated from ancient Greek, means "walking the path of the lion", that is, the king. This title was held by the Greek kings from the Homeric period, and later, starting from the 7th century AD - by the Byzantine emperors.

The item can be dated to the 5th-6th centuries AD, and, possibly, it originates from Asia Minor.

It is kept in the collection of the museum for about 10 years. The gray granite stand does not belong to the original item.

Metric characteristics: height 330 mm; width: 112 mm.


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Publications Journal „Tyragetia"   vol. VI [XXI], nr. 2

Armenian Epitaphs from Kiliya
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

Armenian Epitaphs from Kiliya

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VI [XXI], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie

The article uses a rather large number of sources concerning Armenian resettlement center in Kiliya (Danube Delta, in the Bessarabian historic district of Budjak). Most of them are presented by Armenian epitaphs, in total twelve ones, dated to 1646-1765 years. Twelve tombstones, carrying them, were located inside the church of St. Nicholas in Kiliya and possibly in its environment as well. Five of them, together with epitaphs are preserved to our times: three in the church garden and two in the Kiliya museum. Three of these five tombstones were discovered recently, and their epitaphs are new-found sources. Two others had been published earlier. The remaining seven tombstones and there epitaphs are known only from various publications.

The analysis of these twelve epitaphs reveals that the persons, mentioned in them, in their vast majority were the representatives of the second or third generation of the Armenians, who migrated here from various places of His- torical Armenia, and even, perhaps, from Persia in the early decades of the XVII century. So they had no relation to the old Armenian inhabitants of Kiliya, settled here earlier – in the course of the XI-XV centuries. The sources come to prove that the last ones had a church of St. Virgin (now the location is unknown), which existed up to the very beginning of the XIX century.

So we have to admit that the newly arrived Armenians made burials in the church of St. Nicholas and round it right after its construction in 1648 by the Moldavian ruler Vasile Lupu and, presumably, until their leaving for Grigoriopol in 1792. The epitaph dated 1646 suggests a burial made even during the construction of the church. The said indicates a direct relation of the last to the newly arrived Armenians and finds confirmation in N. Kleeman’s information (the 60-s of the XVIII century) that the Armenians had two churches in Kiliya.

List of illustrations:
Table 1. Previously published Armenian inscriptions, relating to Кiliya. Table 2. Armenian epitaphs of the preserved tombstones.
Photo 1. Marble tombstone with the inscription, dated to 1749. Was found in the churchyard of St. Nicholas on the north side.
Photo 2. Marble tombstone with the epitaph in three verses. Historical museum of Kiliya district.
Photo 3. The third verse, carved on the butt end of the plate.
Photo 4. Marble gravestone with an epitaph in four verses. Carved decoration of the horizontal surface. Historical museum of Kiliya district.
Photo 5. Marble tombstone with the inscription in four verses. Historical museum of Kiliya district.
Photo 6. Marble tombstone with the epitaph, dated to 1755. Located east of the church of St. Nicholas, in the garden.
Photo 7. Tombstone with the inscription, dated to 1653. Located east of the church of St. Nicholas, in the garden.
Photo 8. Marble tombstones in the environment of the church of St. Nicholas, used as doorstep stones.


 

 


Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age

  
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#Exhibit of the Month

The item is the lower part of a leg of a festive table made of white and gray marble. In the upper part, it has a protrusion, similar to a Doric capital, on the horizontal platform of which a square recess is engraved, designed to fix the second part of the leg (upper). The lower part of the leg is made in an anthropomorphic style, and, in our opinion, there are two variants of identifying the depicted character...

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

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