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Publications Journal „Tyragetia"   vol. VIII [XXIII], nr. 1

Dwellings of the Chernoles culture in the forest-steppe between the Dniester and Dnieper Rivers (analysis, typology and comparative analysis)
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

Dwellings of the Chernoles culture in the forest-steppe between the Dniester and Dnieper Rivers (analysis, typology and comparative analysis)

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VIII [XXIII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică

The paper attempts to make a detailed analysis of residential structures of the population relating to the Chernoles culture in the forest-steppe between the Dniester and Dnieper Rivers. Vestiges of dwellings were found on 23 unfortified settlements (Belino, Bol'shaya Andrusovka I, Bol'shaya Snytonka IV, Vishenka II, Voroshilov, Galitsa II, Gromy V, Dnestrovka, Zhvanets, Kanev, Kanev IV, Kreshchatik, Lenkovtsy, Luka-Vrublevetskaya, Makeyevka, Man'kovka X, Mikhalkiv I, Molodetskoye X, Molodovo, Neporotovo, Pikivets VI, Sokilets, Uman XX) and 12 fortified settlements (Adamovka, Bogdanovka I, Grigorovka, Zalevki I, Ivanovka, Kalantayevo, Lubentsy, Nemirovo, Novo-Georgievsk, Rudkovtsy, Subbotovo, Tyasminka) (fi g. 1). All the sites, except the Early Chernoles settlements of Bol'shaya Andrusovka I, Bol'shaya Snytonka IV and Mikhalkiv I, as well as the lower layer of the Subbotovo settlement, were associated with the late stage of the Chernoles culture. In all on the sites of the Early Chernoles culture there were found 17 semi-dugouts and one dugout. On settlements of the late stage 70 surface dwellings, 10 semi-dugouts and 11 dugouts were identified.

Thus, based on available data a classifi cation of 109 residential structures has been proposed. During the early period of Chernoles culture they practiced construction of semi-dugouts and dugouts (fi g. 4). At a later stage of the Chernoles culture they constructed mainly dwellings on the ground surface, and to a lesser extent semi-dugouts and dugouts (fi g. 5-7).

In general, the analysis provided an opportunity to compare dwellings referring to the early and the late periods of the Chernoles culture based on such data as the location of dwellings, their shapes, sizes, designs and interior condition. The main result is an identifi cation of common and distinctive features in the construction of houses of the Chernoles culture bearers.

For the early stage of the Chernoles culture there were determined seven characteristic features in the construction of residential structures: 1) dwellings arranged in a row; 2) semi-dugouts were the leading type of structures; 3) residential structures were of rectangular or square shape; 4) dwellings feature is that the walls are lined with wooden planks or logs; 5) dwellings were equipped with heating facilities or those were absent; 6) there were found pits along with the hearths; 7) inside the buildings clay elevations were identified.

In the course of studying dwellings of the late stage of the Chernoles culture there were revealed nine characteristic features: 1) houses were located in one, two or three rows; 2) ground constructions should be considered the main type of housing; 3) all types of dwellings equally had rounded or rectangular shapes; 4) ground dwellings with frame-and-pillar or stone wall construction on a stone foundation; 5) walls of the dugouts are lined with wooden planks or logs; 6) almost all ground dwellings have heating facilities, along with the pits (in some semi-dugouts and dugouts, unlike the ground dwellings, the heating facilities were absent); 7) all types of dwellings, except dugouts, have household pits; 8) construction of ground dwellings and dugouts indicate that some of them had the stairs; 9) in semi dugouts there were found subsoil shelves-benches, and in ground dwellings there were clay elevations of rounded shapes.

In general, the comparative analysis of dwellings made it possible to trace the major stages in the development of homebuilding at the Chernoles population and revealed similarities and differences between dwellings belonging to the early and the late periods of the Chernoles culture. On the other hand a weak source base (no publications) leaves unresolved a number of topical issues. Nevertheless, the importance of research lies in the fact that the dwellings as an important category of archaeological sources allow to study various aspects of life of the Chernoles population.

List of illustrations:

Fig. 1. Map of distribution of dwellings of the Chernoles culture in the forest-steppe between the Dniester and Dnieper Rivers (1 - Adamovka; 2 - Belino; 3 - Bogdanovka I; 4 - Bol'shaya Andrusovka I; 5 - Bol'shaya Snytonka IV; 6 - Vishenka II; 7 - Voroshilov; 8 - Galitsa II; 9 - Grigorovka; 10 - Gromy V; 11 - Dnestrovka; 12 - Zhvanets; 13 - Zalevki I; 14 - Ivanovka; 15 - Kalantayevo; 16 - Kanev; 17 - Kanev IV; 18 - Kreshchatik; 19 - Lenkovtsy; 20 - Lubentsy; 21 - Luka-Vrublevetskaya; 22 - Makeyevka; 23 - Man'kovka X; 24 - Mikhalkiv I; 25 - Molodetskoye X; 26 - Molodovo; 27 - Nemirovo; 28 - Neporotovo; 29 - Novo-Georgievsk; 30 - Pikivets VI; 31 - Rudkovtsy; 32 - Sokilets; 33 - Subbotovo; 34 - Tyasminka; 35 - Uman XX).
Fig. 2. General plans and sections of dwellings of the Chernoles culture in the forest-steppe between the Dniester and Dnieper Rivers (1, 8 - Nemirovo (after Смирнова 1998); 2 - Bol'shaya Andrusovka I (after Покровська, Петровська 1961); 3-5 - Vishenka II (after Бойко 2004); 6, 7 - Dnestrovka (after Смирнова 1984).
Fig. 3. Remains of a hearth (1), general plans and sections of dwellings (2-6), remains of a stone structure of dwelling (7) from the sites of the Chernoles culture in the forest-steppe between the Dniester and Dnieper Rivers (1 - Luka-Vrublevetskaya (after Шовкопляс 1956); 2 - Tyasminka (after Максимов, Петровская 1959); 3-5 - Subbotov (after Тереножкин 1961); 6, 7 - Neporotovo (after Крушельницька 1985).
Fig. 4. Typology of dwellings of the early stage of the Chernoles culture in the forest-steppe between the Dniester and Dnieper Rivers.
Fig. 5. Typology of ground dwellings of the late stage of the Chernoles culture in the forest-steppe between the Dniester and Dnieper Rivers.
Fig. 6. Typology of semi-dugouts of the late stage of the Chernoles culture in the forest-steppe between the Dniester and Dnieper Rivers.
Fig. 7. Typology of dugouts of the late stage of the Chernoles culture in the forest-steppe between the Dniester and Dnieper Rivers.


 

 


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