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#Exhibit of the Month

The history of silverware goes back over 5,000 years, but only in the 3rd millennium BC, in Mesopotamia and Anatolia, the first pieces of processed silver were made. From there, the art of working with silver spread to Persia and to Europe, where already in Roman and Greek antiquity it reached a high level of skill. Many of the techniques used then, such as casting, embossing and engraving, are still used today.

The National Museum of History of Moldova possesses a rich collection of silver items, which in a special way reflects the everyday life of people of the 18th-20th centuries. The typological range of objects that make up the collection includes both secular and ecclesiastical silverware: fruit vases, bonbonnieres, cutlery, tea and coffee preparation and serving sets, salt-cellars, handbags, snuffboxes and cigarette cases, candelabra, as well as icon cases, chalices, pectoral crosses, candlesticks, and so on.

Products of renowned jewelers, such as Fabergé, Khlebnikov, Sazikov in Russia, Elkington in England, Christofle in France or Norblin and Fraget in Poland stand out for their special quality and luxury. A significant item in the museum's silverware collection is the teapot on a stand with a spirit lamp (bouillotte), made in the Christofle workshop in France.

The Christofle workshop was founded in Paris in 1830 by Charles Christofle. The workshop, which was the court supplier of the Emperor of France Napoleon III, the Emperor of Mexico and the Tsar of Russia, created decorative and household pieces of rare beauty. It was also highly appreciated by the Royal House of Romania, which granted the workshop a supplier patent. In 1842, Charles Christofle bought a patent for electroplating, a technique that involved first coating a metal base with copper and then with nickel and silver. It was this technique that allowed him to mass-produce silver tea sets, which were very popular at the time. Tea, brought to Europe in 1610 by the East India Company, was an expensive commodity that gradually gained popularity. The oldest preserved teapots, dating from the 1670s, were small. As tea gained popularity, larger teapots began to be produced, shaped to match the fashion of the time.

According to Christofle catalogs, the model was produced in 1868 and fascinates with its elegance and refinement. The teapot has a complex design including a pear-shaped container, the surface of which is ornamented with guilloché in the Louis XVI style of the late 1780s. In the upper and lower parts of the body it is decorated with a border with tulips on protrusions, and in the center, it has an escutcheon with an engraved double frame. The teapot is equipped with a folding basket-like handle decorated with triple rings, and a lid with a knob. There are two rivets on the teapot for attaching it to the stand. A spirit lamp with a straight handle and a device for lifting the wick is fixed in the middle of the stand. The item has the Christofle stamp and is made of nickel silver.

The teapot on a stand with a spirit lamp, made in the Christofle workshop, harmoniously combines the value of a unique object and a sample of a large industrial series.

Dimensions: H.: 43 cm; W.: 24 cm.

Virtual Tour


Publications Journal „Tyragetia"   vol. VIII [XXIII], nr. 1


Dwellings of the Chernoles culture in the forest-steppe between the Dniester and Dnieper Rivers (analysis, typology and comparative analysis)
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

Dwellings of the Chernoles culture in the forest-steppe between the Dniester and Dnieper Rivers (analysis, typology and comparative analysis)

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VIII [XXIII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică

The paper attempts to make a detailed analysis of residential structures of the population relating to the Chernoles culture in the forest-steppe between the Dniester and Dnieper Rivers. Vestiges of dwellings were found on 23 unfortified settlements (Belino, Bol'shaya Andrusovka I, Bol'shaya Snytonka IV, Vishenka II, Voroshilov, Galitsa II, Gromy V, Dnestrovka, Zhvanets, Kanev, Kanev IV, Kreshchatik, Lenkovtsy, Luka-Vrublevetskaya, Makeyevka, Man'kovka X, Mikhalkiv I, Molodetskoye X, Molodovo, Neporotovo, Pikivets VI, Sokilets, Uman XX) and 12 fortified settlements (Adamovka, Bogdanovka I, Grigorovka, Zalevki I, Ivanovka, Kalantayevo, Lubentsy, Nemirovo, Novo-Georgievsk, Rudkovtsy, Subbotovo, Tyasminka) (fi g. 1). All the sites, except the Early Chernoles settlements of Bol'shaya Andrusovka I, Bol'shaya Snytonka IV and Mikhalkiv I, as well as the lower layer of the Subbotovo settlement, were associated with the late stage of the Chernoles culture. In all on the sites of the Early Chernoles culture there were found 17 semi-dugouts and one dugout. On settlements of the late stage 70 surface dwellings, 10 semi-dugouts and 11 dugouts were identified.

Thus, based on available data a classifi cation of 109 residential structures has been proposed. During the early period of Chernoles culture they practiced construction of semi-dugouts and dugouts (fi g. 4). At a later stage of the Chernoles culture they constructed mainly dwellings on the ground surface, and to a lesser extent semi-dugouts and dugouts (fi g. 5-7).

In general, the analysis provided an opportunity to compare dwellings referring to the early and the late periods of the Chernoles culture based on such data as the location of dwellings, their shapes, sizes, designs and interior condition. The main result is an identifi cation of common and distinctive features in the construction of houses of the Chernoles culture bearers.

For the early stage of the Chernoles culture there were determined seven characteristic features in the construction of residential structures: 1) dwellings arranged in a row; 2) semi-dugouts were the leading type of structures; 3) residential structures were of rectangular or square shape; 4) dwellings feature is that the walls are lined with wooden planks or logs; 5) dwellings were equipped with heating facilities or those were absent; 6) there were found pits along with the hearths; 7) inside the buildings clay elevations were identified.

In the course of studying dwellings of the late stage of the Chernoles culture there were revealed nine characteristic features: 1) houses were located in one, two or three rows; 2) ground constructions should be considered the main type of housing; 3) all types of dwellings equally had rounded or rectangular shapes; 4) ground dwellings with frame-and-pillar or stone wall construction on a stone foundation; 5) walls of the dugouts are lined with wooden planks or logs; 6) almost all ground dwellings have heating facilities, along with the pits (in some semi-dugouts and dugouts, unlike the ground dwellings, the heating facilities were absent); 7) all types of dwellings, except dugouts, have household pits; 8) construction of ground dwellings and dugouts indicate that some of them had the stairs; 9) in semi dugouts there were found subsoil shelves-benches, and in ground dwellings there were clay elevations of rounded shapes.

In general, the comparative analysis of dwellings made it possible to trace the major stages in the development of homebuilding at the Chernoles population and revealed similarities and differences between dwellings belonging to the early and the late periods of the Chernoles culture. On the other hand a weak source base (no publications) leaves unresolved a number of topical issues. Nevertheless, the importance of research lies in the fact that the dwellings as an important category of archaeological sources allow to study various aspects of life of the Chernoles population.

List of illustrations:

Fig. 1. Map of distribution of dwellings of the Chernoles culture in the forest-steppe between the Dniester and Dnieper Rivers (1 - Adamovka; 2 - Belino; 3 - Bogdanovka I; 4 - Bol'shaya Andrusovka I; 5 - Bol'shaya Snytonka IV; 6 - Vishenka II; 7 - Voroshilov; 8 - Galitsa II; 9 - Grigorovka; 10 - Gromy V; 11 - Dnestrovka; 12 - Zhvanets; 13 - Zalevki I; 14 - Ivanovka; 15 - Kalantayevo; 16 - Kanev; 17 - Kanev IV; 18 - Kreshchatik; 19 - Lenkovtsy; 20 - Lubentsy; 21 - Luka-Vrublevetskaya; 22 - Makeyevka; 23 - Man'kovka X; 24 - Mikhalkiv I; 25 - Molodetskoye X; 26 - Molodovo; 27 - Nemirovo; 28 - Neporotovo; 29 - Novo-Georgievsk; 30 - Pikivets VI; 31 - Rudkovtsy; 32 - Sokilets; 33 - Subbotovo; 34 - Tyasminka; 35 - Uman XX).
Fig. 2. General plans and sections of dwellings of the Chernoles culture in the forest-steppe between the Dniester and Dnieper Rivers (1, 8 - Nemirovo (after Смирнова 1998); 2 - Bol'shaya Andrusovka I (after Покровська, Петровська 1961); 3-5 - Vishenka II (after Бойко 2004); 6, 7 - Dnestrovka (after Смирнова 1984).
Fig. 3. Remains of a hearth (1), general plans and sections of dwellings (2-6), remains of a stone structure of dwelling (7) from the sites of the Chernoles culture in the forest-steppe between the Dniester and Dnieper Rivers (1 - Luka-Vrublevetskaya (after Шовкопляс 1956); 2 - Tyasminka (after Максимов, Петровская 1959); 3-5 - Subbotov (after Тереножкин 1961); 6, 7 - Neporotovo (after Крушельницька 1985).
Fig. 4. Typology of dwellings of the early stage of the Chernoles culture in the forest-steppe between the Dniester and Dnieper Rivers.
Fig. 5. Typology of ground dwellings of the late stage of the Chernoles culture in the forest-steppe between the Dniester and Dnieper Rivers.
Fig. 6. Typology of semi-dugouts of the late stage of the Chernoles culture in the forest-steppe between the Dniester and Dnieper Rivers.
Fig. 7. Typology of dugouts of the late stage of the Chernoles culture in the forest-steppe between the Dniester and Dnieper Rivers.

Сергей Фидельский
New materials of the Iron Age in the Middle Dniester left-bank region
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XIV [XXIX], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică, Chişinău, 2020
Сергей Фидельский
Burial of the Early Iron Age near Slobodzeja at the lower bottom of the river Dniester
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. III [XVIII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică


 

 

Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age

  
  
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#Exhibit of the Month

The history of silverware goes back over 5,000 years, but only in the 3rd millennium BC, in Mesopotamia and Anatolia, the first pieces of processed silver were made. From there, the art of working with silver spread to Persia and to Europe, where already in Roman and Greek antiquity it reached a high level of skill. Many of the techniques used then, such as casting, embossing and engraving, are still used today...

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

menu
The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC