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#Exhibit of the Month

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Several icons from the collection of the National Museum of History of Moldova reproduce in their compositions the miracle that would have been performed around the beginning of the 10th century in the church of Mother of God of Vlacherne in Constantinople. According to the legend, the townspeople retreated to the place for fear of an invasion that threatened the capital of the empire. The gathered crowd prayed incessantly, asking the Blessed Virgin to save the city. In the church of Vlacherne, her ancient vestments, which are said to make miracles, have been preserved for centuries. Among the Christians praying in the church was Saint Andrew the Fool-For-Christ, who came with his disciple Epiphanius, who would later become the Patriarch of Constantinople Polyevkt. After hours of fervent prayers, Saint Andrew was worthy to see the Mother of God passing through the royal doors with a procession of saints, who rose above the crowd, praying together with those present. In the end, the Blessed Virgin spread her garment over the crowd, as a sign of defense and protection, leaving the place. Also, from the legend we know that the city was really saved then.

Later, in memory of this miracle, the Church will order the Feast of the Protection of the Mother of God, celebrated on October 1/14.

The composition of the exposed icon highlights the interior of the Vlacherne church. In the upper register, in a radiate oval mandorla, the Mother of God soars on the clouds, holding the omophorus in her hands. She wears loose robes, trimmed with gold thread, beneath which red, gilded shoes can be seen. In the lower register, in the center of the gathered crowd, Romanos the Melodist is depicted sitting on the pulpit with the timetable in his hands, his head being framed by a radiant nimbus. He is dressed in festive robes, of the same shades as the vestments of the Mother of God. Romanus the Melodist is surrounded by several ecclesiastical faces and simple people, including Saint Andrew, who urges his disciple Epiphanie to look up at the miracle that was taking place in the church. The appearance of the hymnographer Romanos the Melodist (490-556) in this composition is not accidental. The young deacon began his activity in the Vlacherne church, where, five centuries later, Saint Andrew experienced his miraculous revelation. The legend tells that it was the Mother of God who endowed the young man with the grace of a wonderful voice, he later glorified her in his songs, writing, in all probability, the Akathist Hymn of the Mother of God. The Church commemorates Romanos the Melodist on October 1/14, the same day when the Protection of the Mother of God is commemorated.

The icon comes from the 19th century, from one of the workshops in southern Russia, being painted in tempera on a wooden support with dimensions 59x90x3 cm.

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Publications Journal „Tyragetia"   vol. VIII [XXIII], nr. 1


Dwellings of the Chernoles culture in the forest-steppe between the Dniester and Dnieper Rivers (analysis, typology and comparative analysis)
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

Dwellings of the Chernoles culture in the forest-steppe between the Dniester and Dnieper Rivers (analysis, typology and comparative analysis)

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VIII [XXIII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică

The paper attempts to make a detailed analysis of residential structures of the population relating to the Chernoles culture in the forest-steppe between the Dniester and Dnieper Rivers. Vestiges of dwellings were found on 23 unfortified settlements (Belino, Bol'shaya Andrusovka I, Bol'shaya Snytonka IV, Vishenka II, Voroshilov, Galitsa II, Gromy V, Dnestrovka, Zhvanets, Kanev, Kanev IV, Kreshchatik, Lenkovtsy, Luka-Vrublevetskaya, Makeyevka, Man'kovka X, Mikhalkiv I, Molodetskoye X, Molodovo, Neporotovo, Pikivets VI, Sokilets, Uman XX) and 12 fortified settlements (Adamovka, Bogdanovka I, Grigorovka, Zalevki I, Ivanovka, Kalantayevo, Lubentsy, Nemirovo, Novo-Georgievsk, Rudkovtsy, Subbotovo, Tyasminka) (fi g. 1). All the sites, except the Early Chernoles settlements of Bol'shaya Andrusovka I, Bol'shaya Snytonka IV and Mikhalkiv I, as well as the lower layer of the Subbotovo settlement, were associated with the late stage of the Chernoles culture. In all on the sites of the Early Chernoles culture there were found 17 semi-dugouts and one dugout. On settlements of the late stage 70 surface dwellings, 10 semi-dugouts and 11 dugouts were identified.

Thus, based on available data a classifi cation of 109 residential structures has been proposed. During the early period of Chernoles culture they practiced construction of semi-dugouts and dugouts (fi g. 4). At a later stage of the Chernoles culture they constructed mainly dwellings on the ground surface, and to a lesser extent semi-dugouts and dugouts (fi g. 5-7).

In general, the analysis provided an opportunity to compare dwellings referring to the early and the late periods of the Chernoles culture based on such data as the location of dwellings, their shapes, sizes, designs and interior condition. The main result is an identifi cation of common and distinctive features in the construction of houses of the Chernoles culture bearers.

For the early stage of the Chernoles culture there were determined seven characteristic features in the construction of residential structures: 1) dwellings arranged in a row; 2) semi-dugouts were the leading type of structures; 3) residential structures were of rectangular or square shape; 4) dwellings feature is that the walls are lined with wooden planks or logs; 5) dwellings were equipped with heating facilities or those were absent; 6) there were found pits along with the hearths; 7) inside the buildings clay elevations were identified.

In the course of studying dwellings of the late stage of the Chernoles culture there were revealed nine characteristic features: 1) houses were located in one, two or three rows; 2) ground constructions should be considered the main type of housing; 3) all types of dwellings equally had rounded or rectangular shapes; 4) ground dwellings with frame-and-pillar or stone wall construction on a stone foundation; 5) walls of the dugouts are lined with wooden planks or logs; 6) almost all ground dwellings have heating facilities, along with the pits (in some semi-dugouts and dugouts, unlike the ground dwellings, the heating facilities were absent); 7) all types of dwellings, except dugouts, have household pits; 8) construction of ground dwellings and dugouts indicate that some of them had the stairs; 9) in semi dugouts there were found subsoil shelves-benches, and in ground dwellings there were clay elevations of rounded shapes.

In general, the comparative analysis of dwellings made it possible to trace the major stages in the development of homebuilding at the Chernoles population and revealed similarities and differences between dwellings belonging to the early and the late periods of the Chernoles culture. On the other hand a weak source base (no publications) leaves unresolved a number of topical issues. Nevertheless, the importance of research lies in the fact that the dwellings as an important category of archaeological sources allow to study various aspects of life of the Chernoles population.

List of illustrations:

Fig. 1. Map of distribution of dwellings of the Chernoles culture in the forest-steppe between the Dniester and Dnieper Rivers (1 - Adamovka; 2 - Belino; 3 - Bogdanovka I; 4 - Bol'shaya Andrusovka I; 5 - Bol'shaya Snytonka IV; 6 - Vishenka II; 7 - Voroshilov; 8 - Galitsa II; 9 - Grigorovka; 10 - Gromy V; 11 - Dnestrovka; 12 - Zhvanets; 13 - Zalevki I; 14 - Ivanovka; 15 - Kalantayevo; 16 - Kanev; 17 - Kanev IV; 18 - Kreshchatik; 19 - Lenkovtsy; 20 - Lubentsy; 21 - Luka-Vrublevetskaya; 22 - Makeyevka; 23 - Man'kovka X; 24 - Mikhalkiv I; 25 - Molodetskoye X; 26 - Molodovo; 27 - Nemirovo; 28 - Neporotovo; 29 - Novo-Georgievsk; 30 - Pikivets VI; 31 - Rudkovtsy; 32 - Sokilets; 33 - Subbotovo; 34 - Tyasminka; 35 - Uman XX).
Fig. 2. General plans and sections of dwellings of the Chernoles culture in the forest-steppe between the Dniester and Dnieper Rivers (1, 8 - Nemirovo (after Смирнова 1998); 2 - Bol'shaya Andrusovka I (after Покровська, Петровська 1961); 3-5 - Vishenka II (after Бойко 2004); 6, 7 - Dnestrovka (after Смирнова 1984).
Fig. 3. Remains of a hearth (1), general plans and sections of dwellings (2-6), remains of a stone structure of dwelling (7) from the sites of the Chernoles culture in the forest-steppe between the Dniester and Dnieper Rivers (1 - Luka-Vrublevetskaya (after Шовкопляс 1956); 2 - Tyasminka (after Максимов, Петровская 1959); 3-5 - Subbotov (after Тереножкин 1961); 6, 7 - Neporotovo (after Крушельницька 1985).
Fig. 4. Typology of dwellings of the early stage of the Chernoles culture in the forest-steppe between the Dniester and Dnieper Rivers.
Fig. 5. Typology of ground dwellings of the late stage of the Chernoles culture in the forest-steppe between the Dniester and Dnieper Rivers.
Fig. 6. Typology of semi-dugouts of the late stage of the Chernoles culture in the forest-steppe between the Dniester and Dnieper Rivers.
Fig. 7. Typology of dugouts of the late stage of the Chernoles culture in the forest-steppe between the Dniester and Dnieper Rivers.

Сергей Фидельский
Burial of the Early Iron Age near Slobodzeja at the lower bottom of the river Dniester
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. III [XVIII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
Сергей Фидельский
New materials of the Iron Age in the Middle Dniester left-bank region
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XIV [XXIX], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică, Chişinău, 2020



 

 

Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age

  
  
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#Exhibit of the Month

Several icons from the collection of the National Museum of History of Moldova reproduce in their compositions the miracle that would have been performed around the beginning of the 10th century in the church of Mother of God of Vlacherne in Constantinople. According to the legend, the townspeople retreated to the place for fear of an invasion that threatened the capital of the empire. The gathered crowd prayed incessantly, asking the Blessed Virgin to save the city...

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

menu
The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC