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#Exhibit of the Month

The item is the lower part of a leg of a festive table made of white and gray marble. In the upper part, it has a protrusion, similar to a Doric capital, on the horizontal platform of which a square recess is engraved, designed to fix the second part of the leg (upper). The lower part of the leg is made in an anthropomorphic style, and, in our opinion, there are two variants of identifying the depicted character. The first involves the image of the head of the young Heracles (Heracles - Ἡρακλῆς) (beardless), the most favorite hero of antiquity, wearing on his head the skin of the Nemean lion - Λέων της Νεμέας, a vicious monster from Greek mythology who lived in Nemea and was eventually killed by Heracles. The first labor of Heracles, of the twelve set by King Eurystheus (his cousin), was to kill the Nemean lion and bring his skin to the king. It is also known from Greek mythology that the lion of Nemea took the form of a beautiful woman in order to seduce the inhabitants of neighboring villages, who wanted to save the girl from danger. Upon entering the cave, a man saw the woman, who usually pretended to be wounded, and rushed to help her. When he approached her, the woman turned into a lion and killed him. Then the lion devoured the man, giving his bones to Hades - ᾍδης, the god of Hell, who lived in the kingdom of shadows. The second version of the anthropomorphic image interpretation suggests Alexander the Great, king of Macedonia in the second half of the 4th century BC, one of the most famous heroes of the Greek world, who sometimes is depicted as Hercules - wearing a lion's skin. Some researchers consider the custom of wearing the skin of a slain lion a sign of royal power. The word βασιλεύς itself, translated from ancient Greek, means "walking the path of the lion", that is, the king. This title was held by the Greek kings from the Homeric period, and later, starting from the 7th century AD - by the Byzantine emperors.

The item can be dated to the 5th-6th centuries AD, and, possibly, it originates from Asia Minor.

It is kept in the collection of the museum for about 10 years. The gray granite stand does not belong to the original item.

Metric characteristics: height 330 mm; width: 112 mm.


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Publications Journal „Tyragetia"   vol. VIII [XXIII], nr. 1

Dwellings of the Chernoles culture in the forest-steppe between the Dniester and Dnieper Rivers (analysis, typology and comparative analysis)
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

Dwellings of the Chernoles culture in the forest-steppe between the Dniester and Dnieper Rivers (analysis, typology and comparative analysis)

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VIII [XXIII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică

The paper attempts to make a detailed analysis of residential structures of the population relating to the Chernoles culture in the forest-steppe between the Dniester and Dnieper Rivers. Vestiges of dwellings were found on 23 unfortified settlements (Belino, Bol'shaya Andrusovka I, Bol'shaya Snytonka IV, Vishenka II, Voroshilov, Galitsa II, Gromy V, Dnestrovka, Zhvanets, Kanev, Kanev IV, Kreshchatik, Lenkovtsy, Luka-Vrublevetskaya, Makeyevka, Man'kovka X, Mikhalkiv I, Molodetskoye X, Molodovo, Neporotovo, Pikivets VI, Sokilets, Uman XX) and 12 fortified settlements (Adamovka, Bogdanovka I, Grigorovka, Zalevki I, Ivanovka, Kalantayevo, Lubentsy, Nemirovo, Novo-Georgievsk, Rudkovtsy, Subbotovo, Tyasminka) (fi g. 1). All the sites, except the Early Chernoles settlements of Bol'shaya Andrusovka I, Bol'shaya Snytonka IV and Mikhalkiv I, as well as the lower layer of the Subbotovo settlement, were associated with the late stage of the Chernoles culture. In all on the sites of the Early Chernoles culture there were found 17 semi-dugouts and one dugout. On settlements of the late stage 70 surface dwellings, 10 semi-dugouts and 11 dugouts were identified.

Thus, based on available data a classifi cation of 109 residential structures has been proposed. During the early period of Chernoles culture they practiced construction of semi-dugouts and dugouts (fi g. 4). At a later stage of the Chernoles culture they constructed mainly dwellings on the ground surface, and to a lesser extent semi-dugouts and dugouts (fi g. 5-7).

In general, the analysis provided an opportunity to compare dwellings referring to the early and the late periods of the Chernoles culture based on such data as the location of dwellings, their shapes, sizes, designs and interior condition. The main result is an identifi cation of common and distinctive features in the construction of houses of the Chernoles culture bearers.

For the early stage of the Chernoles culture there were determined seven characteristic features in the construction of residential structures: 1) dwellings arranged in a row; 2) semi-dugouts were the leading type of structures; 3) residential structures were of rectangular or square shape; 4) dwellings feature is that the walls are lined with wooden planks or logs; 5) dwellings were equipped with heating facilities or those were absent; 6) there were found pits along with the hearths; 7) inside the buildings clay elevations were identified.

In the course of studying dwellings of the late stage of the Chernoles culture there were revealed nine characteristic features: 1) houses were located in one, two or three rows; 2) ground constructions should be considered the main type of housing; 3) all types of dwellings equally had rounded or rectangular shapes; 4) ground dwellings with frame-and-pillar or stone wall construction on a stone foundation; 5) walls of the dugouts are lined with wooden planks or logs; 6) almost all ground dwellings have heating facilities, along with the pits (in some semi-dugouts and dugouts, unlike the ground dwellings, the heating facilities were absent); 7) all types of dwellings, except dugouts, have household pits; 8) construction of ground dwellings and dugouts indicate that some of them had the stairs; 9) in semi dugouts there were found subsoil shelves-benches, and in ground dwellings there were clay elevations of rounded shapes.

In general, the comparative analysis of dwellings made it possible to trace the major stages in the development of homebuilding at the Chernoles population and revealed similarities and differences between dwellings belonging to the early and the late periods of the Chernoles culture. On the other hand a weak source base (no publications) leaves unresolved a number of topical issues. Nevertheless, the importance of research lies in the fact that the dwellings as an important category of archaeological sources allow to study various aspects of life of the Chernoles population.

List of illustrations:

Fig. 1. Map of distribution of dwellings of the Chernoles culture in the forest-steppe between the Dniester and Dnieper Rivers (1 - Adamovka; 2 - Belino; 3 - Bogdanovka I; 4 - Bol'shaya Andrusovka I; 5 - Bol'shaya Snytonka IV; 6 - Vishenka II; 7 - Voroshilov; 8 - Galitsa II; 9 - Grigorovka; 10 - Gromy V; 11 - Dnestrovka; 12 - Zhvanets; 13 - Zalevki I; 14 - Ivanovka; 15 - Kalantayevo; 16 - Kanev; 17 - Kanev IV; 18 - Kreshchatik; 19 - Lenkovtsy; 20 - Lubentsy; 21 - Luka-Vrublevetskaya; 22 - Makeyevka; 23 - Man'kovka X; 24 - Mikhalkiv I; 25 - Molodetskoye X; 26 - Molodovo; 27 - Nemirovo; 28 - Neporotovo; 29 - Novo-Georgievsk; 30 - Pikivets VI; 31 - Rudkovtsy; 32 - Sokilets; 33 - Subbotovo; 34 - Tyasminka; 35 - Uman XX).
Fig. 2. General plans and sections of dwellings of the Chernoles culture in the forest-steppe between the Dniester and Dnieper Rivers (1, 8 - Nemirovo (after Смирнова 1998); 2 - Bol'shaya Andrusovka I (after Покровська, Петровська 1961); 3-5 - Vishenka II (after Бойко 2004); 6, 7 - Dnestrovka (after Смирнова 1984).
Fig. 3. Remains of a hearth (1), general plans and sections of dwellings (2-6), remains of a stone structure of dwelling (7) from the sites of the Chernoles culture in the forest-steppe between the Dniester and Dnieper Rivers (1 - Luka-Vrublevetskaya (after Шовкопляс 1956); 2 - Tyasminka (after Максимов, Петровская 1959); 3-5 - Subbotov (after Тереножкин 1961); 6, 7 - Neporotovo (after Крушельницька 1985).
Fig. 4. Typology of dwellings of the early stage of the Chernoles culture in the forest-steppe between the Dniester and Dnieper Rivers.
Fig. 5. Typology of ground dwellings of the late stage of the Chernoles culture in the forest-steppe between the Dniester and Dnieper Rivers.
Fig. 6. Typology of semi-dugouts of the late stage of the Chernoles culture in the forest-steppe between the Dniester and Dnieper Rivers.
Fig. 7. Typology of dugouts of the late stage of the Chernoles culture in the forest-steppe between the Dniester and Dnieper Rivers.


 

 


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Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
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Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
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Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
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#Exhibit of the Month

The item is the lower part of a leg of a festive table made of white and gray marble. In the upper part, it has a protrusion, similar to a Doric capital, on the horizontal platform of which a square recess is engraved, designed to fix the second part of the leg (upper). The lower part of the leg is made in an anthropomorphic style, and, in our opinion, there are two variants of identifying the depicted character...

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

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