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#Exhibit of the Month

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Bronze cauldrons of the Scythian time are rare in the Northern Black Sea region, especially on its western borders. Therefore, those few items found on the territory of the Republic of Moldova occupy a worthy place in the collection of the National Museum of History of Moldova (NMHM). In particular, in the archaeological exhibition, two bronze cauldrons are displayed, discovered near the village of Nicolscoe in 1988 in burial mounds no. 14 and 15. In addition, in 2020, two bronze cauldrons without any accompanying documents were found in the collection of NMHM; however, they were visually identified as coming from various excavations in the Low Dniester region, such as burial mound no. 45 near Dubăsari and burial mound no. 1 near the Răscăieții Noi village.

The object presented as the exhibit of the month is a little-known find discovered in 1979 in barrow 1 near the village of Răscăieții Noi in the Ștefan Vodă district. In addition to its outstanding size (about 10 m high), this mound is known for discovering a cast bronze finial in the Scythian animal style on its surface in 1953. However, by the beginning of excavations, the locals had damaged part of the mound and a Scythian cast bronze cauldron was found near it. The cauldron was seriously damaged by mechanical impact, as a result of which the rim was deformed, and the walls, with one preserved vertical handle, were bent inwards. Fragments in the upper part of the body and one handle have been lost. The total reconstructed height of the cauldron is 24 cm (excluding the handles), the reconstructed diameter of the hemispherical cauldron is 30 cm, and the weight is 6.5 kg. In 2020, data on the chemical composition of the bronze cauldron alloy were obtained, revealing that it was cast from an alloy of almost 95 per cent copper. Unfortunately, due to the loss of information on the context of the discovery of the cauldron at Răscăieții Noi, it is impossible to link its discovery with one or another Scythian burial of the barrow. Moreover, the grave goods of other Scythian burials of Barrow 1 do not allow them to date below the 4th century BC. However, the cauldron with vertical handles from Răscăieții Noi most likely belongs earlier. This may be indicated by a bronze finial from the first half of the 5th century BC, which was found on this barrow in 1953. In addition, burial 7 from the nearest excavated barrow 2 at Răscăieții Noi, containing a plaque depicting a rolled predator (a copy of which is also on display at the NMHM), belongs to the mid- 5th century BC. Thus, there is a high probability that the cauldron from Barrow 1 at Răscăieții Noi is associated with the late Middle Scythian period or the mid-5th century BC.

Scythian bronze cauldrons in the west area are concentrated in three main regions: Bukovina-Podolia, the Lower Danube, and the Lower Dniester. Some Scythian cauldrons have no reliable archaeological context. Nevertheless, in combination with the same "stray" finds like the Scythian statues, the finds of Scythian cauldrons mark the Scythian presence, most likely not earlier than the late 6th century or even the turn of the 6th-5th centuries BC. The cauldrons first appeared in Bukovina, where they have been known since the middle of the 7th century BC. Bronze cauldrons (with their carriers) entered the steppe region 150-200 years later, and the "military" burials that appeared in the western steppe regions were no earlier than the middle of the 5th century BC. Most burials with cauldrons (and, apparently, the stray finds) are dated back to the second half of the 5th century BC. Then, in the early 4th century BC, their quantity was reduced, and after the first quarter of the 4th century BC, they completely disappeared from the cultural practice of the population of the steppes of the North-Western Black Sea region.

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Publications Journal „Tyragetia"   vol. X [XXV], nr. 1


The early settlement of Sarmatians in Wallachia
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

The early settlement of Sarmatians in Wallachia

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. X [XXV], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică

Ключевые слова: сарматы, Мунтения, Римская империя, захоронения, погребальный инвентарь, римский импорт, керамика, украшения, оружие.

Резюме: Данное исследование посвящено анализу находок, относящихся к периоду последнего десятилетия I века н.э. и II века н.э., который мы определили как первый этап проникновения сарматов в Мунтению. Находки (53/54 погребальных комплекса), сосредоточенные в основном в южной, восточной и северо-восточной части Мунтении, представлены как единичными захоронениями, так и группами зхоронений. Только 11 захоронений являются бескурганными. Большая часть погребальных комплексов ориентированы по линии З-В (19 погребений), и только 11 ориентированы по линии С-Ю. Большинство погребенных лежат на спине, руки и ноги вытянуты (21 случай). Количество захоронений взрослых (24) и детей (17) относительно сбалансировано. Захоронения, относящиеся к первому этапу проникновения сарматов в Мунтению, представлены небольшим количеством (от одного до трех) предметов, заложенных в каждый комплекс. Инвентарь не отличается разнообразием. 14 погребений являются безынвентарными.

Римские изделия не всегда обеспечивают точную датировку археологического контекста, в котором они были обнаружены. Естественно предположить разрыв между разными периодами в истории этих общин, вполне возможно, последовательными во времени - сначала проникновение в регион (в свою очередь, длительный процесс), затем устройство первых захоронений и установление торговых отношений с Риской империей или дакийскими общинами.

Рассматриваемые 53 или 54 захоронения относятся к разному времени, и разница между ними либо очень мала, либо составляет одно-два десятилетия. В пределах этого периода могут быть отмечены значительные различия в отношении погребального инвентаря.

Общие сходные черты (территориальная концентрация в равнинной зоне, отсутствие поселений, погребения по обряду ингумации, наличие лепных сосудов и оружия определенного типа, наличие «элитных» женских захоронений с аналогиями на обширном пространстве), объединяющие ингумационные захоронения, появившиеся на территории Мунтении с последнего десятилетия I века н.э., и позволяющие отнести их к сарматским, являются частью феномена проникновения сарматов в зону лимеса Нижней Мезии. Однако сходные характеристики дополняются различиями в деталях, которые придают индивидуальность не только разным регионам, где сконцентрированы упомянутые находки, но и группам в пределах определенного ареала, и указывают на значительные изменения, происходившие с течением времени в погребальной практике сарматских общин на территории Мунтении.

Список иллюстраций:
Рис. 1. 1-8 - Рымничелу П.14; 9 - Рымничелу П. 19; 10-12 - Мохряну (по Oța, Sîrbu 2009).
Рис. 2. 1-2 - Лишкотянка-Мош Филон П. 1; 3-5 - Лишкотянка-Мош Филон П. 7; 6, 8 - Лишкотянка-Мовила
Оларулуй П. 7; 7, 9 - Лишкотянка-Мовила Оларулуй П. 17 (по Oța, Sîrbu 2009).
Рис. 3. 1-21 - Витэнешть (1 - по Sîrbu et al. 2014; 2-21 - по Leahu, Trohani 1979)
Рис. 4. 1-6 - Витэнешть (по Sîrbu et al. 2014).
Рис. 5. 1-2 - Лехлиу П. 1 (по Sîrbu et al. 2014).
Рис. 6. 1-2 - Улмень - возле П. 1-2 - (по Morintz, Ionescu 1968; Bichir 1977); 3-7 - Улмень П. 1 (по Morintz,
Ionescu 1970).
Рис. 7. 1-7 - «Клад из Бузэу» (по Oța,Oța 2015).
Рис. 8. Сарматские находки в Мунтении.
Рис. 9. Древнейшие сарматские погребения в Мунтении.




 

 

Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age
  
  

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#Exhibit of the Month

Bronze cauldrons of the Scythian time are rare in the Northern Black Sea region, especially on its western borders. Therefore, those few items found on the territory of the Republic of Moldova occupy a worthy place in the collection of the National Museum of History of Moldova (NMHM)...

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC