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#Exhibit of the Month

The item is the lower part of a leg of a festive table made of white and gray marble. In the upper part, it has a protrusion, similar to a Doric capital, on the horizontal platform of which a square recess is engraved, designed to fix the second part of the leg (upper). The lower part of the leg is made in an anthropomorphic style, and, in our opinion, there are two variants of identifying the depicted character. The first involves the image of the head of the young Heracles (Heracles - Ἡρακλῆς) (beardless), the most favorite hero of antiquity, wearing on his head the skin of the Nemean lion - Λέων της Νεμέας, a vicious monster from Greek mythology who lived in Nemea and was eventually killed by Heracles. The first labor of Heracles, of the twelve set by King Eurystheus (his cousin), was to kill the Nemean lion and bring his skin to the king. It is also known from Greek mythology that the lion of Nemea took the form of a beautiful woman in order to seduce the inhabitants of neighboring villages, who wanted to save the girl from danger. Upon entering the cave, a man saw the woman, who usually pretended to be wounded, and rushed to help her. When he approached her, the woman turned into a lion and killed him. Then the lion devoured the man, giving his bones to Hades - ᾍδης, the god of Hell, who lived in the kingdom of shadows. The second version of the anthropomorphic image interpretation suggests Alexander the Great, king of Macedonia in the second half of the 4th century BC, one of the most famous heroes of the Greek world, who sometimes is depicted as Hercules - wearing a lion's skin. Some researchers consider the custom of wearing the skin of a slain lion a sign of royal power. The word βασιλεύς itself, translated from ancient Greek, means "walking the path of the lion", that is, the king. This title was held by the Greek kings from the Homeric period, and later, starting from the 7th century AD - by the Byzantine emperors.

The item can be dated to the 5th-6th centuries AD, and, possibly, it originates from Asia Minor.

It is kept in the collection of the museum for about 10 years. The gray granite stand does not belong to the original item.

Metric characteristics: height 330 mm; width: 112 mm.


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Publications Journal „Tyragetia"   vol. VI [XXI], nr. 2

The role of Bessarabian private schools in the educational system of the Russian Empire in the second half of the 19th - early 20th century
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

The role of Bessarabian private schools in the educational system of the Russian Empire in the second half of the 19th - early 20th century

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VI [XXI], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie

This article analyzes the situation, incorporation and mechanisms of functioning of private educational institutions in Bessarabia and their role in the educational system of the Russian Empire in the second half of the 19th  - early 20th century.

Although private educational institutions in tsarist Russia functioned throughout the 19th century, a clear rise in the educational system was recorded only in the second half of the century. Private schools in the Russian Empire were divided into three categories in accordance with their curriculums: the first category was consistent with gymnasiums and non-classical secondary schools, the second category corresponded district and city schools, and the third one corresponded primary schools. Although these institutions were not providing any guarantees to the students, their number had been annually growing.

In 1882, in the Russian Empire there were open 1364 private schools numbering 50967 students. In 1894 their number grew up to 1542 schools with a contingent of 65,757 students. Out of the total number of students of private schools female students prevailed. For instance, in 1894 from 65,757 students attending these schools the rate of male students was of only 44,3%.

In the second half of the 19th century and the first decades of the 20th century in Bessarabia several private schools were founded. In 1900-1910 in Chișinău and Bălți there were opened four private gymnasiums for girls: the private Jewish gymnasium of Goldenberg, private gymnasium of Nagovskaya, private gymnasium of Remizova and private gymnasium of A.L. Chudnokhovskaya. These educational institutions were operated only due to the established fees. The director of the gymnasium of A.L. Chudnokhovskaya from Bălți stated in a report to the regional authorities regarding the state of the school in the academic year 1911/1912: “The school is still open due to the tuition fees. It does not receive any additional funds from the state, the city, the gubernia zemstvo or the district zemstvo”.

The Ministry of National Education promoted the policy of rapprochement private schools from peripheries to central ones. The first step in this direction was the decision to introduce compulsory teaching of Russian in all private schools. All measures undertaken by the Ministry of National Education were aimed at the unification of curricula of private schools with programs of public institutions. Private schools supplement the ministerial schools, providing educational opportunities to those who were not accepted in public schools.


 

 


Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age

  
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#Exhibit of the Month

The item is the lower part of a leg of a festive table made of white and gray marble. In the upper part, it has a protrusion, similar to a Doric capital, on the horizontal platform of which a square recess is engraved, designed to fix the second part of the leg (upper). The lower part of the leg is made in an anthropomorphic style, and, in our opinion, there are two variants of identifying the depicted character...

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

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