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#Exhibit of the Month

From the early days of Christianity, the cross meant not only an instrument of torture, but also a symbol of victory over death, a symbol of salvation. The object is made of silver, having the shape of a Byzantine cross with trapezoidal edges of the arms. The side arms and the one at the bottom seem to be turned inside a vessel (chalice (?)) with the trapezoidal "foot". The arms of the cross and of the "chalice" were ended with a decorative element in the shape of a sphere (drop). The cross has a decoration in relief, executed in the technique of filigree and granulation, consisting of drops, double and triple cords, circles with a drop in the center, and trefoils (?). In the center of the cross, at the intersection of the arms, there is a round mount with a cord-like edge, in which the pomegranate fruit is located. However, the main decorative element is the images of four peacocks turned to the right, with a snake in the beak, arranged on all the arms of the cross. The image of the peacocks is rendered in an artistic way, and their tails are stylized in the shape of a palmette.
The peacock, originated from India, due to its luxurious fan-shaped tail, was considered a symbol of the Sun. In ancient Greece, they were considered the sacred birds of the goddess Hera, and in ancient Rome they were considered the sacred birds of the goddess Juno. In Kievan Rus', the peacock (the Firebird) also symbolized the Sun. In the West, the peacock was considered a snake killer, and the iridescent colors of its tail were attributed to its ability to turn snake venom into solar substance. Since snakes in Iranian symbolism were considered enemies of the sun, it was believed that the peacock killed snakes, in order to create "eyes" from their saliva, iridescent with a bronze-green and gold-blue color on the feathers of its tail. Due to the bright splendor of the male peacock's tail, it has been compared with immortal gods and, therefore, with immortality. Peacocks are known as an emblem of greatness, royal authority, spiritual superiority, ideal creation.

In the early period of Christianity, the peacock was a symbol of love, resurrection, immortality, beauty, eternity of the soul, the all-seeing eye of the Church, and the peacock feather was the emblem of Saint Barbara. The image of peacocks with snakes in their beaks on the cross is not at all accidental; it symbolizes the victory of Christ over evil.

On the back side of the cross, traces of fixing are preserved, probably of a pin (missing), so the object served as a brooch (fibula), which was probably attached to the fabric. The piece is presumably dated back to the 9th-12th centuries.

The object has the following dimensions: height - 125 mm; width - 86 mm; weight - 47 g.


 
National Museum of History of Moldova
 

Publications Journal „Tyragetia"

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XI [XXVI], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XI [XXVI], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică

Chișinău, 2017

I. Researches


Denis Topal, Martin Golec
Vekerzug culture and new finds of Scythian akinakai in Moravia

Akinobu Kuroda
Why and How Did Silver Dominate across Eurasia Late-13th through Mid-14th Century? Historical Backgrounds of the Silver Bars Unearthed from Orheiul Vechi

II. Papers and surveys


Наталья Бурдо
Interpretation of the cultural layer of the early Trypillian site of Bernashevka I

Михаил Видейко, Рене Улрау, Евгений Слесарев, Мария Видейко
New investigations at the Trypillia BI-II site of Kolomyitsiv Yar

Юрий Рассамакин
A unique find of a cast of a nose from a grave of the Pit Grave culture, the Molochnaya River region (Ukraine)

Дмитрий Тесленко
A Catacomb grave with wagon near the village of Voikovo

Elena Izbitser
Novokorsunskaya 2/18, A Grave with a Wagon: work on mistakes

Александр Колесник
Non-utilitarian context of the burnt flint artifacts from the Bronze Age settlements in the Seversky Donets River region

Mariana Sîrbu, Stanislav Țerna
Stolniceni II – a new settlement with “ash lenses” discovered in the northern zone of the Republic of Moldova

Octavian Munteanu, Livia Sîrbu, Ghenadie Sîrbu
Discoveries with cult significance from the Late Bronze Age settlement of Ulmu

Игорь Прохненко
Hillforts of the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age in the Transcarpathian Region of Ukraine

Mihail Băț
Early Iron Age settlement in Ţahnăuţi, Rezina District

Иван Власенко
Multi-layered settlement Rudi XX (excavations in 1982)

Aurel Zanoci, Natalia Mateevici
Collection of ceramic items from Butuceni in the National Museum of History of Moldova

Dumitru Boghian, Alexandru Berzovan, Sergiu-Constantin Enea
The Getic fortress from Criveşti Strunga Commune, Iaşi County

Сергей Курчатов
Pre-Chernyakhov horizon of the multilayer settlement of Chernitsa I

Игорь Сапожников
Ancient defensive walls and roads around the Danube crossing near Lake Kartal: Experience of cartographic stratigraphy

Vasile Mărculeț
Posible quaestor Justinianus exercitus: Germanus, son of Dorotheus

Стелла Дончева
Metric systems and principles of dimensioning in early Christian architecture

Vlad D. Ghimpu
Basarabi-Murfatlar and Corbii de Piatră – about the Crimean influence on the architecture of the Romanian churches of the early Middle Ages

Борис Раев, Максим Белов, Анна Жадаева
A grave of a Cuman noble woman in the Kislyakovsky 13 kurgan cemetery (Krasnodar kray)

Юрий Пятницкий
Exhibition “Byzantium through the Centuries” at the State Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg

Ana Boldureanu
Chronicle of coin findings (XI)

III. Paper and book review


Ludmila Bacumenco-Pîrnău
George Bilavschi, Unelte agricole din Moldova medievală, Brăila: Editura Istros, 2016, 488 p. ISBN: 978-606-654-222-7

 


 

 


Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age

  
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#Exhibit of the Month

From the early days of Christianity, the cross meant not only an instrument of torture, but also a symbol of victory over death, a symbol of salvation. The object is made of silver, having the shape of a Byzantine cross with trapezoidal edges of the arms. The side arms and the one at the bottom seem to be turned inside a vessel (chalice (?)) with the trapezoidal "foot". The arms of the cross and of the "chalice" were ended with a decorative element in the shape of a sphere (drop). The cross has a decoration in relief, executed in the technique of filigree and granulation, consisting of drops, double and triple cords, circles with a drop in the center, and trefoils (?). In the center of the cross, at the intersection of the arms, there is a round mount with a cord-like edge, in which the pomegranate fruit is located...

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