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#Exhibit of the Month

From the early days of Christianity, the cross meant not only an instrument of torture, but also a symbol of victory over death, a symbol of salvation. The object is made of silver, having the shape of a Byzantine cross with trapezoidal edges of the arms. The side arms and the one at the bottom seem to be turned inside a vessel (chalice (?)) with the trapezoidal "foot". The arms of the cross and of the "chalice" were ended with a decorative element in the shape of a sphere (drop). The cross has a decoration in relief, executed in the technique of filigree and granulation, consisting of drops, double and triple cords, circles with a drop in the center, and trefoils (?). In the center of the cross, at the intersection of the arms, there is a round mount with a cord-like edge, in which the pomegranate fruit is located. However, the main decorative element is the images of four peacocks turned to the right, with a snake in the beak, arranged on all the arms of the cross. The image of the peacocks is rendered in an artistic way, and their tails are stylized in the shape of a palmette.
The peacock, originated from India, due to its luxurious fan-shaped tail, was considered a symbol of the Sun. In ancient Greece, they were considered the sacred birds of the goddess Hera, and in ancient Rome they were considered the sacred birds of the goddess Juno. In Kievan Rus', the peacock (the Firebird) also symbolized the Sun. In the West, the peacock was considered a snake killer, and the iridescent colors of its tail were attributed to its ability to turn snake venom into solar substance. Since snakes in Iranian symbolism were considered enemies of the sun, it was believed that the peacock killed snakes, in order to create "eyes" from their saliva, iridescent with a bronze-green and gold-blue color on the feathers of its tail. Due to the bright splendor of the male peacock's tail, it has been compared with immortal gods and, therefore, with immortality. Peacocks are known as an emblem of greatness, royal authority, spiritual superiority, ideal creation.

In the early period of Christianity, the peacock was a symbol of love, resurrection, immortality, beauty, eternity of the soul, the all-seeing eye of the Church, and the peacock feather was the emblem of Saint Barbara. The image of peacocks with snakes in their beaks on the cross is not at all accidental; it symbolizes the victory of Christ over evil.

On the back side of the cross, traces of fixing are preserved, probably of a pin (missing), so the object served as a brooch (fibula), which was probably attached to the fabric. The piece is presumably dated back to the 9th-12th centuries.

The object has the following dimensions: height - 125 mm; width - 86 mm; weight - 47 g.


 
National Museum of History of Moldova
 

Publications Journal „Tyragetia"

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XII [XXVII], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XII [XXVII], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie

Chișinău, 2018

Researches


Valentin Tomuleţ
Lists of the population and official statistics of the Russian Empire as important sources for studying the modern history of Bessarabia

Gherghina Boda
Museum education as a form of non-formal education

Papers and surveys


Katarzyna Niemczyk
Antemurale christianitatis? Anti-Turkish propaganda and the true goal of Johannes Olbracht’s crusade

Şarolta Solcan
The perception of women based on the witchcraft trials from Transylvania between the 16th and the 18th centuries

Cătălina Chelcu
Punitive Methods for Unfulfilled Taxes in Moldavia (the second half of the 17th and the first half of the 18th century)

Arnaud Parent
Vivre en bonne intelligence sur les deux rives du Dniestr: les relations diplomatiques entre la Principaute de Moldavie et la Republique des Deux Nations (1757-1763)

Игорь Сапожников
Simeon’s cave monastery near the Rogi village on the Dniester river

Sergius Ciocanu
New information on the construction of the Ascension Church in Chişinău and on its precursor – the Church of the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul

Maria Danilov
The Bessarabian manuscript of the Anthim’s sermons

Anatolie Leşcu
Providing the Russian army with vehicles during its location in Bessarabia (1832-1853)

Andrei Emilciuc
Agents of guild merchants in Bessarabia: legal framework and entrepreneurship sphere (1812-1853)

Lilia Zabolotnaia
The strength and weakness of Alexandra Osipovna Smirnova-Rosset (on the history of the origins of one of the women of the Pushkin era)

Eugen-Tudor Sclifos
Great Britain and the issue of Southern Bessarabia in 1856-1857

Cosmin-Ştefan Dogaru
Courses de chevaux et courses d’automobiles: les clubs exclusivistes roumains entre la fin du XIXe siecle et le debut du XXe siecle

Cristina Tănase
Participation of the inhabitants of Braşov in the Austro-Hungarian patriotic efforts. The action “Gold gab ich fur Eisen” (“I give gold for iron”)

Anatolie Povestca
The legitimacy of the presence of Romanian troops in Bessarabia and the reaction of the native population to it (December 1917 - March 1918)

Elena Ploşniţa
“Golgotha” of the Monument to the Union in Chişinău

Cristina Tănase
Clock on the Tower of the Council House in Braşov: Pages of history

Lilia Crudu
The cadre policy of the top echelon of Moldavian Communist Party apparatus in 1940-1941/1944)

Nicolae Fuştei
Activity of the Romanian Orthodox Mission in Transnistria (1941-1944)

Marko Katić
The proskynetarion icon in the private collection

Дмитрий Гуревич
Neo-Byzantine liturgical set of the Russian Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna, Duchess of Edinburgh

Ana Griţco
Eminescu’s literary works and Leonard Salmen’s drawings. Research in the field of deltiology

Adelaida Chiroşca
Icons “Jesus praying in the Garden of Gethsemane” from the collection of the National Museum of History of Moldova

Ana Griţco
An exhibition that stopped time

Unification of 1918 in museum collections


Elena Ploşniţa
The events preceding the Union of 1918 reflected in the Luminătorul Magazine

Elena Postică
From the archives of the former KGB to the possession of the museum. History of one collection

Vera Stavilă
The fighters for the unification in the collections of the National Museum of History of Moldova: Constantin Stere

Elena Postică
Anniversary exhibition “Centenary of Great Romania”

Vera Serjant
Medals from the collections of the National Museum of History of Moldova, dedicated to the event of the Great Union

Anatolie Povestca
Daniel Ciugureanu (1885-1950), a distinguished personality of the Romanian people

Paper and book review


Andrei Prohin
Andrei Timotin, Profeţii bizantine şi postbizantine în Ţările Române (secolele al XVII-lea - al XIX-lea). Bucureşti: Editura Academiei Române, 2015, 208 p. ISBN: 978-973-27-2586-3

Вячеслав Степанов
История жизни Марии Кантемир в письмах и документах, автор-составитель Лилия Заболотная. Кишинэу: «Lexon Prim», 2018, 270 с. ISBN 978-9975-139-44-1

Lilia Zabolotnaia
Helena Krasowska, The Polish Minority in South-Eastern Ukraine. Warsaw: Institute of Slavic Studies, Polish Academy of Sciences, 2017, 389 p. ISBN: 978-83-64031-65-6

 


 

 


Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age

  
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#Exhibit of the Month

From the early days of Christianity, the cross meant not only an instrument of torture, but also a symbol of victory over death, a symbol of salvation. The object is made of silver, having the shape of a Byzantine cross with trapezoidal edges of the arms. The side arms and the one at the bottom seem to be turned inside a vessel (chalice (?)) with the trapezoidal "foot". The arms of the cross and of the "chalice" were ended with a decorative element in the shape of a sphere (drop). The cross has a decoration in relief, executed in the technique of filigree and granulation, consisting of drops, double and triple cords, circles with a drop in the center, and trefoils (?). In the center of the cross, at the intersection of the arms, there is a round mount with a cord-like edge, in which the pomegranate fruit is located...

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