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One of the great technical achievements that revolutionized the idea of time and space, opening a new era in the history of communication, is telegraphy. It is based on the transmission of electrical signals through a cable over long distances, allowing people to communicate instantly. The telegraph spread very quickly and a network of wires stretched around the world.

In 1837, the American painter and physicist Samuel Morse invented the first electromagnetic device for telegraphy, patented in 1840. To send messages by wire, Morse developed in 1838 a simple code of dots and dashes, which represented the letters of the alphabet, known as "Morse code ".

Both Morse code and the telegraph machine were improved over time, with the telegraph becoming the most widespread system of communication and information transmission for more than a century, until the advent of the Internet. The telegraph system consisted of a series of stations repeaters along the transmission line route. Each station had an operator who received and transmitted messages by telegraph. The Morse machine transmitted about 25 words per minute, which were recorded in code on a paper tape. The operator in charge of transmitting the message would decode it and write it on paper using a special typewriter.

In Bessarabia, the telegraph entered in 1860: on April 8, the Bender telegraph station began its activity, and on April 24, the one in Chisinau, following the construction of the first Odesa-Chisinau-Leova telegraph line. Currently, telegraph services have been discontinued. The only ones who still use coded communication are radio amateurs.

The Morse telegraph machine shown comes from the Osinoostrovsky electrotechnical plant, Soviet Union, and dates back to 1934. The exhibit was restored by Mihail Culașco.

Virtual Tour


Publications Journal „Tyragetia"   vol. VIII [XXIII], nr. 2


 A seal of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher of the 17th century from the State Hermitage Museum collection, Saint Petersburg
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

A seal of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher of the 17th century from the State Hermitage Museum collection, Saint Petersburg

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VIII [XXIII], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie

Печать Храма Гроба Господня 17 века из собрания Государственного Эрмитажа, Санкт-Петербург

Статья посвящена небольшому металлическому медальону с гравированной сценой «Сошествие во ад» и греческой надписью по кругу в собрании Государственного Эрмитажа. Этот предмет был несколько раз опубликован научным сотрудником Эрмитажа Верой Залесской, как «крышечка пиксиды, привезенной паломником из Иерусалима, которая в свою очередь могла использоваться как матрица для воспроизведения евлогий». Эта фантастическая интерпретация была ею повторена в нескольких публикациях и её она вновь хотела публиковать в каталоге выставки, посвященной 150-летию со дня рождения академика Николая Лихачева. Именно последнее побудило меня написать в 2011 г. специальную статью с другой интерпретацией этого предмета и двух других аналогичных ему. Изучая греческие документы в Архиве Древних Актов в Москве я обратил внимание, что печати, оттиснутые на грамотах Иерусалимских патриархов чрезвычайно похожи на предмет из Эрмитажа по типологии, по иконографии и по надписи. Продолжив исследование в этом направлении, я собрал веские аргументы для атрибуции изучаемого предмета как печати Братства Иерусалимского Храма Гроба Господня XVII века. Сравнение с грамотами первой четверти XVII в. Иерусалимского патриарха Феофана позволило высказать предположение об изготовлении этой печати в Константинополе именно по заказу этого патриарха перед его поездкой в Россию для поставления Московским патриархом Филарета Никитича, отца царя Михаила Романова. Время изготовления может быть определено, как первая четверть XVII в. по аналогии с личной печатью патриарха Феофана.

Список иллюстраций:

Рис. 1. Экслибрис библиотеки академика и Н.П. Лихачева.
Рис. 2. Эрмитажная печать. Лицевая сторона. Инв. № w-1101.
Рис. 3. Эрмитажная печать. Оборотная сторона. Инв. № w-1101.
Рис. 4. Эрмитажная печать. Торец с крестовидным вырезом. Инв. № w-1101.
Рис. 5. Грамота Иерусалимского патриарха Феофана о поставлении Филарета Никитича Романова патриархом Московским. 1619 / 1629 гг. РГАДА, Москва.
Рис. 6. Серебряная кустодия грамоты Иерусалимского патриарха Феофана. 1619 / 1629 гг. РГАДА, Москва.
Рис. 7. Жалованная царская грамота 1630 г., хранящаяся в монастыре Святой Екатерины на Синае в Египте.
Рис. 8. Грамота Иерусалимского патриарха Феофана 1625 г. РГАДА, Москва.
Рис. 9. Печать с изображением «Сошествия во ад» на грамоте Иерусалимского патриарха Феофана 1625 г. РГАДА, Москва.
Рис. 10. Грамота Иерусалимского патриарха Досифея от мая 1682 г. о низложении с престола патриарха Никона. РГАДА, Москва.
Рис. 11. Серебряная кустодия на грамоте патриарха Досифея 1682 г. РГАДА, Москва.

Yuri Pyatnitsky
An Imperial Eye to the Past: Byzantine exhibitions in the State Hermitage museum, 1861-2006
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. V [XX], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
Yuri Pyatnitsky
Love, Politics, and Fine Arts. The mechanical automaton “Golden Peacock” of Catherine the Great and its Byzantine model
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XI [XXVI], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
Yuri Pyatnitsky
Maria Vassilaki, Working Drawings of Icon Painters after the Fall of Constantinople. The Andreas Xyngopoulos Portfolio at the Benaki Museum. Athens, 2015, 453 p. $ 45. 400 copies in English and 400 copies in Greek. Produced by Peak Publishing and printed by Baxas S.A. for the A.G. Leventis Foundation, the A.G. Leventis Gallery and the Benaki Museum. ISBN 978-9963- 732-09-8 (A.G. Leventis Foundation, A.G. Leventis Gallery). ISBN 978-960-476-168-5 (Benaki Museum)
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XIII [XXVIII], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie



 

 

Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age
  
  

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#Exhibit of the Month

One of the great technical achievements that revolutionized the idea of time and space, opening a new era in the history of communication, is telegraphy. It is based on the transmission of electrical signals through a cable over long distances, allowing people to communicate instantly...

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC