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#Exhibit of the Month

The item is the lower part of a leg of a festive table made of white and gray marble. In the upper part, it has a protrusion, similar to a Doric capital, on the horizontal platform of which a square recess is engraved, designed to fix the second part of the leg (upper). The lower part of the leg is made in an anthropomorphic style, and, in our opinion, there are two variants of identifying the depicted character. The first involves the image of the head of the young Heracles (Heracles - Ἡρακλῆς) (beardless), the most favorite hero of antiquity, wearing on his head the skin of the Nemean lion - Λέων της Νεμέας, a vicious monster from Greek mythology who lived in Nemea and was eventually killed by Heracles. The first labor of Heracles, of the twelve set by King Eurystheus (his cousin), was to kill the Nemean lion and bring his skin to the king. It is also known from Greek mythology that the lion of Nemea took the form of a beautiful woman in order to seduce the inhabitants of neighboring villages, who wanted to save the girl from danger. Upon entering the cave, a man saw the woman, who usually pretended to be wounded, and rushed to help her. When he approached her, the woman turned into a lion and killed him. Then the lion devoured the man, giving his bones to Hades - ᾍδης, the god of Hell, who lived in the kingdom of shadows. The second version of the anthropomorphic image interpretation suggests Alexander the Great, king of Macedonia in the second half of the 4th century BC, one of the most famous heroes of the Greek world, who sometimes is depicted as Hercules - wearing a lion's skin. Some researchers consider the custom of wearing the skin of a slain lion a sign of royal power. The word βασιλεύς itself, translated from ancient Greek, means "walking the path of the lion", that is, the king. This title was held by the Greek kings from the Homeric period, and later, starting from the 7th century AD - by the Byzantine emperors.

The item can be dated to the 5th-6th centuries AD, and, possibly, it originates from Asia Minor.

It is kept in the collection of the museum for about 10 years. The gray granite stand does not belong to the original item.

Metric characteristics: height 330 mm; width: 112 mm.


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Publications Journal „Tyragetia"   vol. VI [XXI], nr. 2

Divorces in Bessarabia in the first half of the 19th century
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

Divorces in Bessarabia in the first half of the 19th century

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VI [XXI], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie

A study of the problem of divorce in the 19th century is no less important than research of other issues in the field of marriage and family, because this act influenced the position of ex-spouses, especially women in society. A limited number of grounds for divorce, as well as the social foundation and moral principles of the 19th  century made a divorce very difficult and controversial issue.

The issues of divorce in the history of Moldova and Wallachia during the 19th  century were examined in works by V. Barbu, S. Solcan, C. Ghițulescu, M.M. Szekely, L. Zabolotnaia, S. Bolovan, I. Bolovan, and M. Brie. Their studies indicate that the Orthodox Church allowed the dissolution of marriage in certain cases, such as adultery, inappropriate behavior, battering and threat to life, expulsion of the wife out of home, taking the monastic vows, heresy, proxenetism, lesbianism, pedophilia, etc. However, until now there were not published any works on the history of marital divorce in Bessarabia after 1812, when it became a part of the Russian Empire.

This article provides specific examples of how the church rules on divorce were respected in the first half of the 19th  century. As research sources there were used documents from the State Archives of the Republic of Moldova, namely from the files of the Chișinău Theological Consistory and the Civil Court of Bessarabia, which addressed such matters.

At the beginning of the 19th  century the civil law in Bessarabia had standards of the local law. According to Harmenopoulos’s “Hexabiblos” (title 12, volume 4), there existed “reasons for husband’s divorce to the detriment of his wife” and “reasons for wife’s divorce to the detriment of her husband”.  In the first case, a husband could divorce his wife for the following reasons: adultery, attempt on husband’s life, wife’s repast with other men without the knowledge of her husband, participation in public events without the knowledge of her husband, abortion, wife’s missing from home against the will of her husband, unless she visited her parents. In the second case, reasons for divorce were: husband’s impotence, the attempt on wife’s life, adultery even after the second warning, wife’s accusing of adultery unproven by husband. A common reason for divorce was the monasticism.

The marriage could be dissolved in the case of a wife’s depravity. Archival materials show, however, that there were different reasons and means to resolve the issue in favor of preserving the family. This was the case of the family of Hristi and Vasilca Bulgaru from the village of Vulcănești, Izmail County. Despite the fact that the accusation in wife’s depraved behavior, as well as drunkenness and theft, was proved, the divorce was rejected and the case ended in reconciliation between the spouses.

Among the cases of divorce, as reflected in the documents of the Chișinău Theological Consistory, there were marriages dissolved by the church because of the infringement of the church norms. For example, in 1819 it was considered the case of a sexton of the Briceni village, Hotin County, Tudor Ghiba, who had married a fourth time. It was decided to recognize the fourth marriage illegal. Although in accordance with the principles of the church ex- spouses had to be subjected to penance, because of their advanced age they were sentenced only to repentance.

However, there have been cases when the applicants withdrew their petitions for divorce, even though under local laws there were all grounds for the dissolution of marriage. Among these cases it should be noted that of a resident of the village of Chișla, Hotin County, Maria Buticoviceva, who wished to divorce her husband Andrei Buticovicev. The motive for the petition for divorce was his behavior: he drank every day, threatened to take her life, and ex-pulsed her out of the house at night with the young child. But a month later, Maria decided to forgive her husband and refused to divorce.

So, we can conclude that the reasons for divorce in Bessarabia in the first half of the 19th  century were a violation of church rules concerning marriage, monasticism, attempt on the spouse’s life, adultery and some others. At the same time, the ecclesiastical authorities usually tried to prevent divorce, doing everything possible to preserve the family.


 

 


Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age

  
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#Exhibit of the Month

The item is the lower part of a leg of a festive table made of white and gray marble. In the upper part, it has a protrusion, similar to a Doric capital, on the horizontal platform of which a square recess is engraved, designed to fix the second part of the leg (upper). The lower part of the leg is made in an anthropomorphic style, and, in our opinion, there are two variants of identifying the depicted character...

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

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