EN RO















#Exhibit of the Month

>>>

Bronze cauldrons of the Scythian time are rare in the Northern Black Sea region, especially on its western borders. Therefore, those few items found on the territory of the Republic of Moldova occupy a worthy place in the collection of the National Museum of History of Moldova (NMHM). In particular, in the archaeological exhibition, two bronze cauldrons are displayed, discovered near the village of Nicolscoe in 1988 in burial mounds no. 14 and 15. In addition, in 2020, two bronze cauldrons without any accompanying documents were found in the collection of NMHM; however, they were visually identified as coming from various excavations in the Low Dniester region, such as burial mound no. 45 near Dubăsari and burial mound no. 1 near the Răscăieții Noi village.

The object presented as the exhibit of the month is a little-known find discovered in 1979 in barrow 1 near the village of Răscăieții Noi in the Ștefan Vodă district. In addition to its outstanding size (about 10 m high), this mound is known for discovering a cast bronze finial in the Scythian animal style on its surface in 1953. However, by the beginning of excavations, the locals had damaged part of the mound and a Scythian cast bronze cauldron was found near it. The cauldron was seriously damaged by mechanical impact, as a result of which the rim was deformed, and the walls, with one preserved vertical handle, were bent inwards. Fragments in the upper part of the body and one handle have been lost. The total reconstructed height of the cauldron is 24 cm (excluding the handles), the reconstructed diameter of the hemispherical cauldron is 30 cm, and the weight is 6.5 kg. In 2020, data on the chemical composition of the bronze cauldron alloy were obtained, revealing that it was cast from an alloy of almost 95 per cent copper. Unfortunately, due to the loss of information on the context of the discovery of the cauldron at Răscăieții Noi, it is impossible to link its discovery with one or another Scythian burial of the barrow. Moreover, the grave goods of other Scythian burials of Barrow 1 do not allow them to date below the 4th century BC. However, the cauldron with vertical handles from Răscăieții Noi most likely belongs earlier. This may be indicated by a bronze finial from the first half of the 5th century BC, which was found on this barrow in 1953. In addition, burial 7 from the nearest excavated barrow 2 at Răscăieții Noi, containing a plaque depicting a rolled predator (a copy of which is also on display at the NMHM), belongs to the mid- 5th century BC. Thus, there is a high probability that the cauldron from Barrow 1 at Răscăieții Noi is associated with the late Middle Scythian period or the mid-5th century BC.

Scythian bronze cauldrons in the west area are concentrated in three main regions: Bukovina-Podolia, the Lower Danube, and the Lower Dniester. Some Scythian cauldrons have no reliable archaeological context. Nevertheless, in combination with the same "stray" finds like the Scythian statues, the finds of Scythian cauldrons mark the Scythian presence, most likely not earlier than the late 6th century or even the turn of the 6th-5th centuries BC. The cauldrons first appeared in Bukovina, where they have been known since the middle of the 7th century BC. Bronze cauldrons (with their carriers) entered the steppe region 150-200 years later, and the "military" burials that appeared in the western steppe regions were no earlier than the middle of the 5th century BC. Most burials with cauldrons (and, apparently, the stray finds) are dated back to the second half of the 5th century BC. Then, in the early 4th century BC, their quantity was reduced, and after the first quarter of the 4th century BC, they completely disappeared from the cultural practice of the population of the steppes of the North-Western Black Sea region.

Virtual Tour


Publications Journal „Tyragetia"   vol. X [XXV], nr. 1


Investigations of Trypillia site
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

Investigations of Trypillia site

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. X [XXV], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică

Keywords: Trypillia site, V. Khvoika, excavations, stage Trypillia BI-II, large settlements

Abstract: This article is dedicated to investigations of the site, which gave its name to the Trypillian Culture. For the first time it was excavated by V. Khvoika in autumn 1897, at the same time when he explored few sites around the village of Trypillia in 40 km south of Kiev. Despite the fact that since the excavation more than a hundred years has passed, the results have not been published, except a description in two pages that appeared in 1901. Later the place of excavations was forgotten, and only after 100 years it was discovered for a second time and identified using archival materials. A brief history of this "rediscovery" is presented in this article. We also propose the description of explored objects based on a modern view on the Trypillian Culture objects and interpretation of other finds from this site in the system of contemporary dating and periodization. This article mainly based on data from the Scientific Archive of the Institute of Archaeology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and some materials from the National Museum of History of Ukraine. Trypillia now is the largest (possibly up to 100 hectares) site of this culture in the Middle Dnieper region and at the same time the earliest one of these sites, dated by BI-II stage (around 4400-4200 BC).

List of illustrations:
Fig. 1. Fragment of the Open Letter of 1909 to the excavations in the Kiev region, including Trypillia. Scientific Archive, Institute of Archaeology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev.
Fig. 2. Page from the field dairy by V. Khvoika (1897) with a view of the place of excavations near Trypillia. Scientific Archive, Institute of Archaeology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev.
Fig. 3. Excavations near Trypillia, drawing from a table made by V. Khvoika. Drawing is based on the sketch from the field dairy, 1897. Scientific Archive, Institute of Archaeology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv.
Fig. 4. Photo from a table made using field drawings. Inscription on the top: "Excavations near Trypillia, Kiev district". Scientific Archive, Institute of Archaeology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev.
Fig. 5. Maps with the place of excavations: 1 - scheme published by V. Khvoika in 1904; 2 - fragment of a map, possibly used for the scheme; 3 - fragment of a scheme. Place of excavations is marked by an arrow.
Fig. 6. Excavations near Trypillia, panorama by V. Khvoika (a) vs satellite image (b): 1 - place, from which V. Khvoika observed explored area near Trypillia; 2 - hill at the central part of Trypillia with church; 3 - windmills to the right; 4 - windmills on Divich Gora (to the left). Place of excavations marked by circle.
Fig. 7. Place of excavations near Trypillia in 2003: а - view to Trypillia, by number 4 Divich-Gora marked (on drawings to the left); b - plateau with site, view from Krasnaya river; с - view from Trypillia, 1 - place, from which V. Khvoika observed explored area near Trypillia; place of 2003 г. Excavations marked by arrow.
Fig. 8. Trypillia, 2003: 1 - test-pit, general view; 2 - cultural layer with remains of burnt house; 3 - fragment of pear- like vessel; 4 - fragments of painted pottery.
Fig. 9. Trypillia, excavations in 1897, drawings by V. Khvoika. Scientific Archive, Institute of Archaeology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev.
Fig. 10. Trypillia, excavations in 1897, drawings by V. Khvoika. Croup of vessels and human bones. Scientific Archive, Institute of Archaeology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev.
Fig. 11. Trypillia, excavations in 1897, drawings by V. Khvoika. Page from dairy, dated 3.10.1897. Group of vessels in test-pit. Scientific Archive, Institute of Archaeology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev.
Fig. 12. Trypillia, excavations in 1897, drawings by V. Khvoika, later used for preparations of the large illustration.
Scientific Archive, Institute of Archaeology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev.
Fig. 13. Finds from excavations near Trypillia: 1 - stone tools; 2 - copper axe. Drawings by V. Khvoika (1) and photo
(2) published in 1901.
Fig.14. Trypillia, helmet-like cap: 1 - old label with inscription, in which Trypillia mentioned as the place of finding; 2-4 - helmet-like cap, general views. National Museum of History of Ukraine, Kiev.
Fig. 15. Fragments of painted pottery, probably from Trypillia. Drawings from the large table prepared by V. Khvoika for publication. Scientific Archive, Institute of Archaeology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev.
Fig. 16. View on excavations near the Krasna River by Trypillia at the beginning of the 20th century: 1 - inscription from the top of passé-partout; 2 - photo of trench, places with vessels are marked; 3-4 - finds enlarged. Scientific Archive, Institute of Archaeology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev.

Михаил Видейко, Джон Чапмен, Биссерка Гейдарская, Наталья Бурдо, Эдуард Овчинников, Галина Пашкевич, Наталья Шевченко
Investigations of a mega-structure at the Trypillian culture settlement near Nebelivka in 2012
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VII [XXII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
Михаил Видейко
The channel kilns in Trypillia Culture and development of pottery
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XIII [XXVIII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
Михаил Видейко, Джон Чапмен, Наталья Бурдо, Биссерка Гейдарская, Стоилка Игнатова, Светлана Иванова, Виталий Рудь
Research project "Early urbanism in prehistoric Europe: the case of the Trypillian mega-sites" in 2013
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VIII [XXIII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
Михаил Видейко
Crises and early urbanization processes in Europe
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XII [XXVII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
Михаил Видейко, Наталия Бурдо
Trypillia from Dniester to Dnieper in the second half of the 5th mill. BC: farming colonization, invasions, migrations (possibilities of investigations)
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XIV [XXIX], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică, Chişinău, 2020



 

 

Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age
  
  

Come to Museum! Discover the History!
  
Visit museum
Visit museum
Summer schedule: daily
10am – 6pm.

Winter schedule: daily
10am – 5pm.
Closed on Fridays.
Entrance fees:  adults - 10 MDL, pensioners, adults with moderate disabilities / disability of the 3rd degree, students - 5 MDL, school students - 2 MDL. Free access: enlisted men (...)

WiFi Free Wi-Fi Zone in the museum: In the courtyard of the National History Museum of Moldova there is Wi-Fi Internet access for visitors.


#Exhibit of the Month

Bronze cauldrons of the Scythian time are rare in the Northern Black Sea region, especially on its western borders. Therefore, those few items found on the territory of the Republic of Moldova occupy a worthy place in the collection of the National Museum of History of Moldova (NMHM)...

Read More >>

































The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

menu
The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC