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One of the great technical achievements that revolutionized the idea of time and space, opening a new era in the history of communication, is telegraphy. It is based on the transmission of electrical signals through a cable over long distances, allowing people to communicate instantly. The telegraph spread very quickly and a network of wires stretched around the world.

In 1837, the American painter and physicist Samuel Morse invented the first electromagnetic device for telegraphy, patented in 1840. To send messages by wire, Morse developed in 1838 a simple code of dots and dashes, which represented the letters of the alphabet, known as "Morse code ".

Both Morse code and the telegraph machine were improved over time, with the telegraph becoming the most widespread system of communication and information transmission for more than a century, until the advent of the Internet. The telegraph system consisted of a series of stations repeaters along the transmission line route. Each station had an operator who received and transmitted messages by telegraph. The Morse machine transmitted about 25 words per minute, which were recorded in code on a paper tape. The operator in charge of transmitting the message would decode it and write it on paper using a special typewriter.

In Bessarabia, the telegraph entered in 1860: on April 8, the Bender telegraph station began its activity, and on April 24, the one in Chisinau, following the construction of the first Odesa-Chisinau-Leova telegraph line. Currently, telegraph services have been discontinued. The only ones who still use coded communication are radio amateurs.

The Morse telegraph machine shown comes from the Osinoostrovsky electrotechnical plant, Soviet Union, and dates back to 1934. The exhibit was restored by Mihail Culașco.

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Publications Journal „Tyragetia"   vol. IX [XXIV], nr. 1


Élements defensifs dans la fortification gete du Horodca Mare, districte Hâncești
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

Élements defensifs dans la fortification gete du Horodca Mare, districte Hâncești

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. IX [XXIV], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică Chișinău, 2015

Résumé

Bien que connu depuis près d’un siècle, la fortifi cation de Horodca Mare, Hâncești, n’a pas atteint les chercheurs que depuis quelques années maintenant. En outre, les interprétations occasionnelles de certains de mes collègues ont tendance à exclure le site de la liste des fortifi cations Gète, en faisant valoir sa position en l’absence de tous les indicateurs palpables de caractère défensif. Cette position est doublement regrettable, car il est venu à négliger les opinions exprimées par les archéologues des générations précédentes. Par conséquent, essayer de récupérer les arguments en faveur de caractère défensif du site du promontoire La Cetate (sic!), nous avons rassemblé et analysé les informations provenant de plusieurs sources, ainsi que les résultats de la recherche sur le terrain que nous avons menée en collaboration avec des collègues de l’Université Pédagogique de Chisinau. De cette façon, on a retourné aux collègues les arguments qui démontrent la nature défensive du site, suivie de la présentation des éléments caractéristiques défensifs qui ont été étudié au Horodca Mare.

Liste des figures: Fig. 1. 1 - Orthophotocarte avec l’emplacement des fortifications Horodca Mare et Horodca Mica. Vue de l’ouest (Google Earht + PRO); 2 - vue des fortifi cations Horodca Mare et Horodca Mica. Vue du sud. Fig. 2. La carte avec l’emplacement du village Horodca Moldavie. Fig. 3. Horodca Mare. Vue de la pointe nord-est. Fig. 4. Orthophotocarte avec l’emplacement des fortifi cations Horodca Mare et Horodca Mica. Vue de nord-est (Google Earht + PRO). Fig. 5. Vue sur le promontoiare avec l’emplacement de la forteresse Horodca Mare (Orthophotocarte). Fig. 6. Horodca Mare. Orthophotos. Localisation systèmes défensifs potentiels (Google Earht + PRO). Fig. 7. Horodca Mica. Vue du système défensif: A - partie du sud-est; B - Sud. C - Vue du système défensif de l’extérieur; D - Vue du bastion de l’extérieur. Fig. 8. Horodca Mare. Plan magnétomètrique. Fig. 9. Horodca Mare. Vue sur le système défensif située dans le nord-est du promontoire. Fig. 10 . Orthophotocarte d’emplacement de la section tracée à travers le système défensif Horodca Mare. Fig. 11. Horodca Mare. 1 - plan du section №V et №VI dans les carrés A4-A8; 2 - profi l du Sud-Est (inversé) dans la section №VI, les carrés A4-A8. Fig. 12. Horodca Mare. 1 - plan du section №V et №VI dans les carrés A4-A8; 2 - profi l du Nord-Ouest (inversé) dans la section №VI, les carrés A4-A8. Fig 13. Horodca Mare. 1 - plan du section №V et №VI; 2 - profi l du Nord-Ouest dans la section №°V, les carrés A1-A12. Fig. 14. Horodca Mare. Section №V: 1 - aperçu de couche de sol brûlé en combinaison avec de l’argile et de pierres brûlées; 2 - détail. Fig. 15. Horodca Mare. Aperçu sur la maison №10 du nord-est: 1 - la partie exploré dans Section №VI; 2 - la partie explorer dans Section №V. Fig. 16. Horodca Mare. Aperçu sur la maison №10 du sud-ouest: 1 - la partie exploré dans Section №V; 2 - la partie explorer dans Section №VI. Fig. 17. Horodca Mare. Les objets en fer trouvé dans la section №V: 1, 2, 5, 6 - dans la couche culturelle; 3, 4 -  dans le complexe №10. Fig. 18. Horodca Mare. Verticilles trouvés dans la couche culturelle de la section №VI. Fig. 19. Horodca Mare. La fosse №12: 1 - plan au niveau de la détection; 2 - profi l après l’enlèvement de la couche de remplissage. Fig. 20. Horodca Mare. La fosse №11.

Octavian Munteanu
Les etapes d’édification de la fortification de Horodca Mică
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VII [XXII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
Octavian Munteanu, Nicolae Batog, Valeriu Prohniţchi
The Getic defensive system of Butuceni-West: details regarding the West No. 2 defensive line trajectory
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XII [XXVII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
Octavian Munteanu, Ion Tentiuc
A house of the 15th century explored in the fortified settlement of Horodca Mică
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VIII [XXIII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
Aurel Zanoci, Octavian Munteanu, Ion Tentiuc, Valeriu Bubulici
New archaeological discoveries of the Iron Age sites near the village of Mana, Orhei District
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. IX [XXIV], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică Chișinău, 2015
Jerzy Hatłas, Octavian Munteanu
Domed tombs of Thrace - 160 years of research
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. V [XX], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică



 

 

Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age
  
  

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#Exhibit of the Month

One of the great technical achievements that revolutionized the idea of time and space, opening a new era in the history of communication, is telegraphy. It is based on the transmission of electrical signals through a cable over long distances, allowing people to communicate instantly...

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC