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#Exhibit of the Month

From the early days of Christianity, the cross meant not only an instrument of torture, but also a symbol of victory over death, a symbol of salvation. The object is made of silver, having the shape of a Byzantine cross with trapezoidal edges of the arms. The side arms and the one at the bottom seem to be turned inside a vessel (chalice (?)) with the trapezoidal "foot". The arms of the cross and of the "chalice" were ended with a decorative element in the shape of a sphere (drop). The cross has a decoration in relief, executed in the technique of filigree and granulation, consisting of drops, double and triple cords, circles with a drop in the center, and trefoils (?). In the center of the cross, at the intersection of the arms, there is a round mount with a cord-like edge, in which the pomegranate fruit is located. However, the main decorative element is the images of four peacocks turned to the right, with a snake in the beak, arranged on all the arms of the cross. The image of the peacocks is rendered in an artistic way, and their tails are stylized in the shape of a palmette.
The peacock, originated from India, due to its luxurious fan-shaped tail, was considered a symbol of the Sun. In ancient Greece, they were considered the sacred birds of the goddess Hera, and in ancient Rome they were considered the sacred birds of the goddess Juno. In Kievan Rus', the peacock (the Firebird) also symbolized the Sun. In the West, the peacock was considered a snake killer, and the iridescent colors of its tail were attributed to its ability to turn snake venom into solar substance. Since snakes in Iranian symbolism were considered enemies of the sun, it was believed that the peacock killed snakes, in order to create "eyes" from their saliva, iridescent with a bronze-green and gold-blue color on the feathers of its tail. Due to the bright splendor of the male peacock's tail, it has been compared with immortal gods and, therefore, with immortality. Peacocks are known as an emblem of greatness, royal authority, spiritual superiority, ideal creation.

In the early period of Christianity, the peacock was a symbol of love, resurrection, immortality, beauty, eternity of the soul, the all-seeing eye of the Church, and the peacock feather was the emblem of Saint Barbara. The image of peacocks with snakes in their beaks on the cross is not at all accidental; it symbolizes the victory of Christ over evil.

On the back side of the cross, traces of fixing are preserved, probably of a pin (missing), so the object served as a brooch (fibula), which was probably attached to the fabric. The piece is presumably dated back to the 9th-12th centuries.

The object has the following dimensions: height - 125 mm; width - 86 mm; weight - 47 g.


 
National Museum of History of Moldova
 

Publications Journal „Tyragetia"

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. IX [XXIV], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. IX [XXIV], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică

Chișinău, 2015

I. Researches


Aurel Zanoci
Typology and evolution of gates and access into early hallstattian fortresses in Tisa-Dniester space

Denis Topal
Use of bronze in the producing of Early Scythian akinakai

II. Papers and surveys


Гурам Чхатарашвили
Some samples of art of the Paleolithic period from Georgian Stone Age sites

Stanislav Țerna, Mariana Vasilache
Anthropomorphic fi gurines of the Cucuteni A stage from Duruitoarea Veche I (Râșcani District, Republic of Moldova)

John Chapman, Bisserka Gaydarska
The Anglo-Ukrainian project “Early urbanism in prehistoric Europe?” sends its travelling exhibition to Chișinău

Mariana Sîrbu
The spiritual life of the Noua-Sabatinovka-Coslogeni communities through the prism of the non-funerary items found in settlements

Юрий Бойко
Research of a tumulus near the Bandyshovka village

Валерий Самар, Андрей Антонов
Research on the burial mound no. 2 of the “Bel’mak-Mogila” group near the village of Trudovoe (Kuibyshevo District, Zaporizhia Region)

Владимир Фоменко
A metal vessel with the zoomorphic handle from Kabardiano-Balkaria

Сергей Горбаненко
Palaeoethnobotanical materials from Znamenskoe hill-fort and Dyakovo culture grain production

Natalia Mateevici, Mihaela Iacob, Dorel Paraschi
New findings of Greek amphorae in the area of Peceneaga in Western Dobrogea

Octavian Munteanu
Élements defensifs dans la fortification gete du Horodca Mare, districte Hâncești

Виталий Синика, Николай Тельнов
Lamps in the funeral practice of the Scythians of the North Black Sea littoral

Aurel Zanoci, Octavian Munteanu, Ion Tentiuc, Valeriu Bubulici
New archaeological discoveries of the Iron Age sites near the village of Mana, Orhei District

Ion Tentiuc, Valeriu Bubulici, Angela Simalcsik
A cremation burial of a horseman near the village of Mana (the Orhei district)

Monica Nicolăescu
Graphic representations in Romanian archaeology. An overview regarding Late Iron Age dwellings

Иван Власенко, Татьяна Щербакова
Ekaterinovka – single-layer settlement of the Sântana de Mureș-Chernyakhov culture

Виталий Козюба
Contentious issues in the historical topography of the Old Russian city of Berestye

Vasile Mărculeț
On the relations between the Vlach-Bulgarian Tsardom and the Byzantine Empire in 1197-1204

Елена Избицер
Professional ethics and subjectivity: regarding one monograph and two reviews

Ana Boldureanu
Chronicle of monetary findings (IX)

III. Paper and book review


Vasile Iarmulschi
J. Brandt, B. Rauchfuß (Herausgeber), Das Jastorf-Konzept und die vorrömische Eisenzeit im nördlichen Mitteleuropa. Beiträge der Internationalen Tagung zum einhundertjährigen der Veröffetlichung der „Ältesten Urnenfriedhöfe bei Uelzen und Lüneburg" d

Rodica Ursu Naniu
De vorbă cu Radu Florescu. Amintiri și evocări. Târgoviște: Editura Cetatea de Scaun, 2013, 181 p. ISBN 978-606-537-199-6

IV. Homage


Наталья Шишлина, Евгений Сава
Честное служение науке...

Philip L. Kohl
V.A. Trifonov: Sixty Years Young

 


 

 


Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
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Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age

  
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#Exhibit of the Month

From the early days of Christianity, the cross meant not only an instrument of torture, but also a symbol of victory over death, a symbol of salvation. The object is made of silver, having the shape of a Byzantine cross with trapezoidal edges of the arms. The side arms and the one at the bottom seem to be turned inside a vessel (chalice (?)) with the trapezoidal "foot". The arms of the cross and of the "chalice" were ended with a decorative element in the shape of a sphere (drop). The cross has a decoration in relief, executed in the technique of filigree and granulation, consisting of drops, double and triple cords, circles with a drop in the center, and trefoils (?). In the center of the cross, at the intersection of the arms, there is a round mount with a cord-like edge, in which the pomegranate fruit is located...

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