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#Exhibit of the Month

It is a sports trophy obtained at an inter-school oina (a bat-and-ball game) competition in interwar Bessarabia. We don't know which schools participated in this competition, nor the venue, we only know that one of the winners received the second prize and that the event was held on May 13, 1934. In this way we learn about the existence of different sports competitions organized by schools, including the oina game. Oina is a beautiful and complex sports game that promotes the development of body and spirit, courage and the desire for self-improvement. Oina is a treasure of the Romanian people, which must be sacredly kept and passed on to future generations.

The oină or hoina game is considered a Romanian national sports game having a history of at least six centuries. The oina game is practiced continuously, according to the chronicles and deeds of the time at least from the 14th century, being mentioned for the first time in 1364, during the reign of Vlaicu Vodă. The game requires complex sports qualities (good running speed, fast reflexes in self-defense movements against the balls, accuracy in throwing and hitting the ball with a bat or stick). Oina is a sport that identifies us to the same extent as trânta, our national wrestling. The game becomes attractive among young people in the villages, enters the school curriculum through physical education lessons. Through the Education Reform of 1898, as well as through other ministerial decisions, Education Minister Spiru Haret introduces the compulsory oina lessons in all schools, as well as the annual oina competitions.

On May 9, 1899, in Bucharest, the first national oina championship was organized, the teams being made up of high school students. The winner was the team of Nicolae Bălcescu High School from Brăila.

In 1912, the Federation of the Romanian Sports Society (Bucharest) was created, which consisted of 13 sports commissions including the oina commission.

After the Union of 1918, the Federation of the Romanian Sports Society was reorganized in 1923, including the other oina sports commissions of Transylvania, Bukovina and Bessarabia.

In 1932, the Romanian Oina Federation was founded.

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Publications Journal „Tyragetia"   vol. VII [XXII], nr. 1

Preliminary results of interdisciplinary research of the Early Paleolithic multilayered site of Bairaki in Transnistria in 2011- 2012
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

Preliminary results of interdisciplinary research of the Early Paleolithic multilayered site of Bairaki in Transnistria in 2011- 2012

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VII [XXII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică

The article is devoted to preliminary results of comprehensive research of the Early Paleolithic site of Bairaki, which was discovered in 2010 and investigated in 2011-2012. The work was conducted by a team of specialists from Russia and Republic of Moldova, including archaeologists (IHMC RAS, St. Petersburg; Institute of Cultural Heritage, ASM), geologists and paleogeographers (Institute of Geography and Geology RAS, Moscow). In the site there were found several layers of archaeological and paleontological finds associated with ancient deposits of the high 7th terrace above the flood plain of the Dniester.

According to the stratigraphy, there were two complexes - the early and the late. The first is associated with alluvial deposits, and the second - with the overlying ancient fossil soils. A few finds of the late complex are comparable to the stone artifacts of the "Dubăsari industry", the variety of regional Acheulian (500-700 thousands years old). More numerous finds of the early complex date back to the Late Eopleistocene (0.8-1.2 million years old), corre- sponding to the developed or classic Oldowan of Africa and Eurasia.

List of illustrations:

Fig. 1. A schematic map of the location of sites in the Lower Transnistria in the vicinity of Dubăsari: 1 - Bairaki; 2 - Bolshoy Fontan; 3 - Kretseshty.

Fig. 2. Section and plans of excavations in the Bairaki site. The section of the northeastern wall of the excavation.

Legend: 1 - Holocene layers; 2 - yellowish-brown loess loam; 3 - brown fossil soil; 4 - red-colored fossil soil; 5 - hydromorphic fossil soil; 6 - floodplain alluvium; 7 - oxbow deposits; 8 - deposits of channel alluvium; 9 - conglomerate. Plans of excavations in 2010, 2011 and 2012. The plan of the lower layer (excavation in 2012).

Fig. 3. 1 - General view of the ravine and site of Bairaki from the south; 2 - general view of the excavation from the opposite (western) slope of the gorge.

Fig. 4. Stone products of the late complex: 1 - flint pebble chopper (middle horizon); 2 - core with frost damage (upper horizon); 3 - slightly rounded scraper (upper horizon); 4 - Quina type retouched scraper on a fragment of flint (upper horizon); 5 - jasper pebble chopper (lower horizon).

Fig. 5. Stone products of the late complex: 1 - flint flake (middle horizon); 2 - retouched flint flake (middle horizon); 3 - core-like fragment scraper (middle horizon); 4 - lanceolate worked pebble (lower horizon); 5 - core with scraper working edge (upper horizon).

Fig. 6. Stone products of the early (Oldowan) complex: 1 - Cosăuți sandstone rounded lanceolate worked pebble; 2 - Cosăuți sandstone chopper with alternating treatment of the working edge; 3 - Devonian sandstone chopper with alternating treatment of the working edge; 4 - Cosăuți sandstone chopper with notched working edge.

Fig. 7. Stone products of the early (Oldowan) complex: 1-11 - flint flakes; 12 - a flake of quartz sandstone; 13-16 - nuclei and nucleoid forms (13 - with a scraping edge).

Fig. 8. Stone products of the early (Oldowan) complex: 1-4 - flake scrapers; 5-7 - flake borers; 8 - massive lanceolate proto-biface; 9, 10 - backed knives (9 - partially retouched, 10 - natural); 11, 12 - scrapers (11 - pointed).

Fig. 9. Stone products of the early (Oldowan) complex: 1-5 - beaked burins (3 - combined with scraper); 6 - rounded and heavily crazed flint beaked point; 7 - almost rectangular scraper on a flint blade; 8 - beaked point on a Cosăuți sandstone pebble.


 

 


Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age

  
  
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#Exhibit of the Month

It is a sports trophy obtained at an inter-school oina (a bat-and-ball game) competition in interwar Bessarabia. We don't know which schools participated in this competition, nor the venue, we only know that one of the winners received the second prize and that the event was held on May 13, 1934. In this way we learn about the existence of different sports competitions organized by schools, including the oina game. Oina is a beautiful and complex sports game that promotes the development of body and spirit, courage and the desire for self-improvement. Oina is a treasure of the Romanian people, which must be sacredly kept and passed on to future generations...

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