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#Exhibit of the Month

This unique amphora was found in 1984 during the excavations of the Şuri I settlement of the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture (5th-4th thousand BC), which existed in the Eneolithic era, in the mid-1st half of the 4th millennium BC, near the village of Şuri, Drochia District of the Republic of Moldova.

In the classifications of Cucuteni-Trypillian painted pottery, it belongs to a separate type distinguished by archaeologists, known in the special literature under various names: facial urns, amphorae with an ornament of the "owl face" type, amphorae with facial ornament, facial amphorae.

These names were given to the amphorae due to their peculiar ornament and their truncated-conical or rounded body that resembles the head of an owl (large circles on the sides of the handles are the eyes of a bird, and the handles are beaks), as well as due to attempts to hypothetically interpret the vessels as images of some two-faced or four-faced anthropomorphic, zoomorphic or ornithomorphic mythological creatures of the Cucuteni-Trypillian pantheon.

For the first time, amphorae with facial ornament appear in pottery assemblages of the Cucuteni-Trypillia community at the beginning of the 4th millennium BC, during the period of its highest flourishing, and are present later, as a separate type of tableware, in each of the dwellings of the settlements of this culture for about 700 subsequent years, until its collapse and disappearance from the historical arena in the last quarter of the 4th millennium BC.

The origin of the facial amphorae goes back to the anthropomorphic two-faced vessels with a rounded or spheroconical body, equipped with 2 or 4 handles, depicting two female figures standing with their backs to each other, which were used by the Cucuteni-Trypillians for centuries and were widely used in religious practices, representing, as is commonly believed, the main female deity of the Cucuteni-Trypillian pantheon - the Great Mother Goddess in her two different incarnations, who was also considered as the Deity of the Universe.

The study of vessels of this type indicates that, being a reflection of the cult of the Great Goddess and probably embodying cosmogonic ideas about the creation of the World from the elements and body parts of the Primordial Being (probably depicting this creature itself, possibly mixomorphic and like Aditi - the Divine Bull-Cow - androgynous), with their shape and ornament, the facial amphorae recreate the prevailing ideas of the Cucuteni-Trypillians about the structure of the Universe.

This is evidenced by the stylized features of anthropo- and zoomorphism, three-tier or two-tier division of the ornament vertically and four-tier division horizontally, the image of such cosmic universals as the Center and corners of the World, the Cosmic Mountain (Earth) and the Sky, the Tree of Life, the Sun, the Moon in various phases, etc. Often, images of animals, birds or their symbols are included in the ornamental system of the amphorae. There are also facial amphorae with two or four images of female deities with an indication of their particular characteristic functions. As with their prototypes, the anthropomorphic two-faced vessels, the most important ornamental zone in the facial amphorae is the space between the handles.

It is here that the ornament reflects one of the most significant themes of the Cucuteni-Trypillian religion, the theme of the connection between the Earth and Heaven.


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National Museum of History of Moldova
 

Publications Journal „Tyragetia"

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VII [XXII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VII [XXII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică

Chișinău, 2013

I. Researches


Elena Izbitser
The Royal Cemetery at Ur and Early Wheels

Любовь Клочко
Types of decorative elements in headwear of the Scythian women

Vasile Iarmulschi
Einige Überlegungen bezüglich der Chronologie und Periodisierung der Poienești-Lucașeuca-Kultur

 II. Papers and surveys


Николай К. Анисюткин, Сергей Коваленко, Алиса Ларионова, Александр Очередной, Ксения Степанова, Андрей Чепалыга
Preliminary results of interdisciplinary research of the Early Paleolithic multilayered site of Bairaki in Transnistria in 2011- 2012

Mădălin-Cornel Văleanu, Luminița Bejenaru, Serghei Covalenco, Ion Tentiuc, Vitalie Burlacu, Codrin Lacătușu
Preliminary data on a child’s grave discovered in the Paleolithic site of Cosăuți (Republic of Moldova

Mihaela-Maria Barbu
L’industrie lithique taillée d’habitat énéolithique de Şoimuș 2 - Lângă sat

Михаил Видейко, Джон Чапмен, Биссерка Гейдарская, Наталья Бурдо, Эдуард Овчинников, Галина Пашкевич, Наталья Шевченко
Investigations of a mega-structure at the Trypillian culture settlement near Nebelivka in 2012

Mariana Vasilache
Établissements cucuteniens dans l’espace d’entre Prut et Dniestre (étape Cucuteni A- Tripolie BI). Aspects de l’histoire de la recherche

Наталья Бурдо
Traces of the ritual practice at a large Trypillian culture settlement near Maydanetske

Eugen Mistreanu
A new settlement of the Gumelnița culture from Chioselia Mare village, Cahul District

Николай Руссев, Михаил Фокеев, Игорь Манзура
Barrow of the Copper and Bronze Ages near the Village of Suvorovo, Odessa County

Mariana Sîrbu
Stone objects found in the settlements of Noua-Sabatinovka cultures in the Prut-Dniester area

Станислав Церна, Денис Топал
Two new hoards and several solitary finds of metal items of the Bronze Age - Early Hallstatt periods in the territory of Republic of Moldova

Mariana Sîrbu
The hoard of the late Bronze Age from the village of Antonești (the Cantemir District, Republic of Moldova

Ion Niculiță, Aurel Zanoci, Mihail Băț, Sergiu Matveev
Archaeological research on the site of Saharna Mare (2009-2012) (II)

Natalia Mateevici
Amphora from Chios found in Dubăsari (new object in the collections of NMHM)

Николай Тельнов, Виталий Синика
The Getae burial on the left bank of the Dniester and some problems of the Thracian burial practice

Octavian Munteanu
Les etapes d’édification de la fortification de Horodca Mică

Alexandru Levinschi, Ivan Vlasenco
The Getae burial with cremation at the medieval settlement of Poiana I

Elena Fialko, Yurii Boltryk
Textiles from Scythian burial complexes

Игорь Сапожников
New cartographic materials on the ancient ramparts of Budzhak

Кирилл Мызгин
Roman coins in the forest-steppe on left bank of the Dnieper: general characteristics, distribution and major problems in the study

Aydogdy Kurbanov
The hephthalite numismatics

Владимир Ситник, Валентин Лебедев
Unpublished and rare coins of the Golden Horde from the site of Nizhny Dzhulat (North Caucasus)

Alexandru Levinschi, Eugen Sava
The military camp of Charles XII at Varnița near the Bender Fortress

Ana Boldureanu
Chronicle of monetary findings (VII)

III. Disscusions


Pavel Kosintsev, Pavel Kuznetsov
Comment on “The Earliest Horse Harnessing and Milking”

Natalia Mateevici
About some assertions on the spread of Greek amphorae in the Getae world

IV. Paper and book review


Andrei Nicic
Tudor Soroceanu, Die Kupfer- und Bronzedepots der frühen und mittleren Bronzezeit in Rumänien/ Depozitele de obiecte din cupru și bronz din România. Epoca timpurie și mijlocie a bronzului, 5 Archaeologia Romanica (Hrsg. R. Harhoiu, S. Hansen, C. Gaiu

Livia Sîrbu
Liviu Marta, The late Bronze Age Settlements of Petea - Csengersima, Satu Mare: Editura Muzeului Sătmărean, 2009, 239 pagini, 29 figuri, 8 planșe tipologice, 66 planșe, ISBN 978-973-1843-31-5

 


 

 


Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age

  
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#Exhibit of the Month

This unique amphora was found in 1984 during the excavations of the Şuri I settlement of the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture (5th-4th thousand BC), which existed in the Eneolithic era, in the mid-1st half of the 4th millennium BC, near the village of Şuri, Drochia District of the Republic of Moldova. In the classifications of Cucuteni-Trypillian painted pottery, it belongs to a separate type distinguished by archaeologists, known in the special literature under various names: facial urns, amphorae with an ornament of the "owl face" type, amphorae with facial ornament, facial amphorae. These names were given to the amphorae due to their peculiar ornament and their truncated-conical or rounded body that resembles the head of an owl (large circles on the sides of the handles are the eyes of a bird, and the handles are beaks), as well as due to attempts to hypothetically interpret the vessels as images of some two-faced or four-faced anthropomorphic, zoomorphic or ornithomorphic mythological creatures of the Cucuteni-Trypillian pantheon...

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2021 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2021 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

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