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Amphoras are massive vessels originating from the ancient Greek world, executed on the potter's wheel, in which Greek merchants, in the process of their trade with other territories and peoples, transported, in particular, Greek wine, olive oil, salted olives, paints, nuts, etc. The shape of the Greek commercial amphora, in the opinion of some researchers, vaguely recalls the female figure, having, probably, at the beginning, a sacred character. Among the main features of the amphorae are well-thought-out metric proportions. The full amphora, placed in a horizontal position, rested on the body and on the elongated foot in such a way that the upper part of the vessel and the high neck were permanently raised obliquely, so that the liquid would not spill. The sharp shape of the foot required special fixation, either on special supports, or the lower part of the body was buried in the ground or sand. The deep inner cavity of the leg did not allow the liquid in the vessel to become cloudy during the transport process, the sediments remaining stored inside the leg.

Among the dozens of city-states in ancient Greece, which practiced trade with the local populations of the Black Sea region (Euxine Bridge), there is also the city of Mende (Μένδη), located on the Kassandra arm (Κασσάνδρας) of the Halkidiki peninsula (Halkidiki - Χαλκιδική). It is considered that the foundation of the city of Mende took place in the century VIII BC. The main article of trade of this Greek polis was wine, considered of superior quality and even indicated by Hippocrates as a medicine in the treatment of certain diseases. Starting with the century 6th century BC, the city of Mende experienced economic growth, especially in the Circumpontian region, and in the V-IV BC Mendiot wine appears more and more frequently in the local markets of this region.

Even some barbarian tribes, according to the Greek tradition, often used wine amphorae in the funeral process, when they were placed, as an offering, in the graves, together with other objects, which were either brought as an offering to the gods, or were intended to serve the deceased in the afterlife.

Such a funerary complex was discovered by archaeologist Nicolae Chetraru in 1987 - the Scythian tumulus no. 45 from Dubăsari. The deceased was cremated, and three amphorae and a large bronze cauldron were placed in the grave. Among the amphorae (all belonging to Greek wine centers) was one from Mende, along with two others from Chios. Since the wines of Mende and Chios were considered expensive wines, as was the bronze cauldron, their presence in this mound was an indication of a privileged financial and social position of the person cremated here.

The Mende amphora from tomb 1 of mound 45 at Dubăsari is, at the moment, the only complete vessel from this center on the territory of the Republic. Moldova, although fragments of Mendiot amphorae have also been discovered in other archaeological sites in the country.

The vessel is made of a yellowish-brown paste with chewed sand and many particles of mica. The amphora has the following basic dimensions: height - 740 mm, depth - 610 mm, maximum diameter - 390 mm.

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Publications Journal „Tyragetia"   vol. VII [XXII], nr. 1


Types of decorative elements in headwear of the Scythian women
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

Types of decorative elements in headwear of the Scythian women

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VII [XXII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică


The study analyzes the Scythian women's headwear based on the discoveries in Scythian barrows with female burials. By decorative elements there were identified several types of headwear. As a rule, they were worn by representatives of aristocratic layers of society and highlighted their social status. Despite the diversity of decorative elements it can be noted a common element for all the head-dresses - the representation of the fertility goddess.

List of illustrations:

Fig. 1. Golden appliqué on a cylindrical head-dress depicting a goddess wearing a crown (polos).

Fig. 2. Scene of adoration on a gold miniature from the Melitopol mound.

Fig. 3. Image of the goddess on earrings from the mound No. 10 near the village of Bol'shaya Znamenka (Zaporizhia Oblast).

Fig. 4. Pendant with the image of the goddess Hera (the village of Belozerka, Zaporizhia Oblast).

Fig. 5. Reconstruction of a head-dress based on investigation of materials from the mound No. 22 near the village of Kamenka (Mykolaiv Oblast).

Fig. 6. The layout of decorations on a head-dress (mound No. 22, near the village of Vil'na Ukraina, Kherson Oblast).

Fig. 7. Reconstruction of head-dress by decorative elements from the mound No. 22, near the village of Vil'na Ukraina (Kherson Oblast).

Fig. 8. Openwork appliqués for the decoration of a head-dress from the mound No. 22 near the village of Kamenka (Mykolaiv Oblast): a - palmette; b - images of a sphinx and a griffin in a heraldic composition.

Fig. 9. Openwork plates from the set for the decoration of a head-dress from the mound No. 22, near the village of Vil'na Ukraina (Kherson Oblast): a - plate with a representation of a sphinx and a griffin in a heraldic composition; b - openwork ribbon with the representation of a tree with birds.

Fig. 10. Reconstruction of a head-dress by the ornaments from the mound No. 22, near the village of Vil'na Ukraina (Kherson Oblast).




 

 

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#Exhibit of the Month

Amphoras are massive vessels originating from the ancient Greek world, executed on the potter's wheel, in which Greek merchants, in the process of their trade with other territories and peoples, transported, in particular, Greek wine, olive oil, salted olives, paints, nuts, etc. The shape of the Greek commercial amphora, in the opinion of some researchers, vaguely recalls the female figure, having, probably, at the beginning, a sacred character. Among the main features of the amphorae are well-thought-out metric proportions...

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

menu
The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC