EN RO















#Exhibit of the Month

>>>

Bronze cauldrons of the Scythian time are rare in the Northern Black Sea region, especially on its western borders. Therefore, those few items found on the territory of the Republic of Moldova occupy a worthy place in the collection of the National Museum of History of Moldova (NMHM). In particular, in the archaeological exhibition, two bronze cauldrons are displayed, discovered near the village of Nicolscoe in 1988 in burial mounds no. 14 and 15. In addition, in 2020, two bronze cauldrons without any accompanying documents were found in the collection of NMHM; however, they were visually identified as coming from various excavations in the Low Dniester region, such as burial mound no. 45 near Dubăsari and burial mound no. 1 near the Răscăieții Noi village.

The object presented as the exhibit of the month is a little-known find discovered in 1979 in barrow 1 near the village of Răscăieții Noi in the Ștefan Vodă district. In addition to its outstanding size (about 10 m high), this mound is known for discovering a cast bronze finial in the Scythian animal style on its surface in 1953. However, by the beginning of excavations, the locals had damaged part of the mound and a Scythian cast bronze cauldron was found near it. The cauldron was seriously damaged by mechanical impact, as a result of which the rim was deformed, and the walls, with one preserved vertical handle, were bent inwards. Fragments in the upper part of the body and one handle have been lost. The total reconstructed height of the cauldron is 24 cm (excluding the handles), the reconstructed diameter of the hemispherical cauldron is 30 cm, and the weight is 6.5 kg. In 2020, data on the chemical composition of the bronze cauldron alloy were obtained, revealing that it was cast from an alloy of almost 95 per cent copper. Unfortunately, due to the loss of information on the context of the discovery of the cauldron at Răscăieții Noi, it is impossible to link its discovery with one or another Scythian burial of the barrow. Moreover, the grave goods of other Scythian burials of Barrow 1 do not allow them to date below the 4th century BC. However, the cauldron with vertical handles from Răscăieții Noi most likely belongs earlier. This may be indicated by a bronze finial from the first half of the 5th century BC, which was found on this barrow in 1953. In addition, burial 7 from the nearest excavated barrow 2 at Răscăieții Noi, containing a plaque depicting a rolled predator (a copy of which is also on display at the NMHM), belongs to the mid- 5th century BC. Thus, there is a high probability that the cauldron from Barrow 1 at Răscăieții Noi is associated with the late Middle Scythian period or the mid-5th century BC.

Scythian bronze cauldrons in the west area are concentrated in three main regions: Bukovina-Podolia, the Lower Danube, and the Lower Dniester. Some Scythian cauldrons have no reliable archaeological context. Nevertheless, in combination with the same "stray" finds like the Scythian statues, the finds of Scythian cauldrons mark the Scythian presence, most likely not earlier than the late 6th century or even the turn of the 6th-5th centuries BC. The cauldrons first appeared in Bukovina, where they have been known since the middle of the 7th century BC. Bronze cauldrons (with their carriers) entered the steppe region 150-200 years later, and the "military" burials that appeared in the western steppe regions were no earlier than the middle of the 5th century BC. Most burials with cauldrons (and, apparently, the stray finds) are dated back to the second half of the 5th century BC. Then, in the early 4th century BC, their quantity was reduced, and after the first quarter of the 4th century BC, they completely disappeared from the cultural practice of the population of the steppes of the North-Western Black Sea region.

Virtual Tour


Publications Journal „Tyragetia"   vol. VII [XXII], nr. 1


Les etapes d’édification de la fortification de Horodca Mică
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

Les etapes d’édification de la fortification de Horodca Mică

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VII [XXII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică

La fortification Horodca Mică est située dans la zone centrale de l'espace pruto-dniesterien, aux environs des sources de la rivière Botna, et elle est devenue objet des recherches systématiques depuis 2006. Plusieurs des résultats obtenus depuis cette date on été publiés entre temps. On compte parmi ceux-ci une étude concernant les éléments défensifs de la forteresse, où l'on a mis en avant l'hypothèse d'une fortification par étapes, du promontoire, alternées avec des destructions périodiques. Au départ, on avait plus insisté sur la première phase d'édification du système défensif, en décrivant ses éléments constitutifs, les techniques utilisées dans le processus d'édification, mais aussi l'évolution de la fortification même, jusqu'au dévastateur incendie qui a écroulé la construction défensive.

Dans cet article on a repris le débat portant sur le système défensif. L'hypothèse sur laquelle on se fonde admet l'existence de trois autres phases de refortification du même espace, suite à la première destruction. Pour l'argumentaire de ce point de vue on s'est proposé de présenter dans un premier temps, le tableau des observations objectives, enregistrées sur le terrain, et dans un deuxième temps, partant de ces observations, offrir une explication de la vision que nous avons construit. Cette analyse porte y compris sur les modalités d'édification du système défensif dans chacune des phases identifiées, sur les techniques et matériaux utilisés, ainsi que des raisonnements concernant les repères chronologiques.

On est donc d'avis que dans ces phases ultérieures de fortification du promontoire, a été procédé de la même manière que dans la première : un fossé a été creusé (en réalité c'est l'ancien qui a été étendu en largeur), derrière a été montée une palissade complexe, en bois (sur le sommet même de la vague constituée suite à l'écroulement de la construction de la phase précédente), remplie avec de la terre excavée du fossé. Dans la situation crée, la berme utilisée dans la première phase d'édification du système défensif, n'y trouvait plus sa place. Ainsi, on estime que la délimitation du fossé proprement-dit, depuis l'intérieur, doit être fixée par rapport à la palissade. De cette manière, des barrières solides ont pu être créées, qui, dû à leurs dimensions impressionnantes, ont protégé à plusieurs reprises la population de ces espaces, dans les siècles V à III a. Chr.

Liste des figures:

Fig. 1. Horodca Mica. 1 - Localisation du site Horodca; 2 - schéma topographique avec l'emplacement des section stracés entre 2006-2011.

Fig. 2. Horodca Mică. Section nr. I: 1-4 - images de la période de recherche du système défensif.

Fig. 3. Horodca Mică. Section nr. I. Vue sur le profil de l'ouest avec la délimitation des diverses phases de construction. Fig. 4. Horodca Mică. Section nr. I. Profil de l'ouest.

Fig. 5. Horodca Mică. Section nr. I: 1 - plan et profil de l'ouest dans les carreaux A1-A15; 2 - plan et profil de l'ouest dans les carreaux A1-A9 (la double ligne marque les délimitations imaginaires).

Fig. 6. Horodca Mică. Section nr. I. Vestiges du fourneau aménagé dans les couches supérieures du groupe de len- tilles qui forme les restes écroulés de la construction de la 1ère phase d'édification.

Fig. 7. Horodca Mică. Section nr. I: 1 - plan et profil avec l'indication des délimitations imaginaires du niveau an- tique de marche et des fossés dans les diverses phases d'édification de la fortification (la ligne double); 2 - plan et profil avec la reconstruction.

Fig. 8. Horodca Mică. Section nr. I: 1 - vue sur le profil de l'ouest dans le carreau A5 avec la délimitation du com- plexe 103; 2 - vue sur le profil de l'ouest dans le carreau A4 avec la délimitation des complexes 104, 105 et 106.

Fig. 9. Horodca Mică. Section nr. I: 1 - la délimitation des lentilles de sol entre la 1ère et la 2ème phase d'écroulement de la fortification; 2 - vues sur le fossé nr. I.

Fig. 10. Horodca Mică. Section nr. I: 1 - plan et profil avec l'indication des délimitations imaginaires du niveau antique de marche, et des fossés dans les diverses phases d'édification de la fortification (la ligne double); 2 - plan et profil avec la reconstruction schématique de la fortification de la 3ème phase

Fig. 11. Horodca Mică. Section nr. I: 1 - plan et profil avec l'indication des délimitations imaginaires du niveau antique de marche et des fossés dans les diverses phases d'édification de la fortification (la ligne double); 2 - plan et profil avec la reconstruction schématique de la fortification de la 4ème phase.

Fig. 12. Horodca Mică. Section nr. I. Vues sur le fossé nr. 4.

Fig. 13. Horodca Mică. Section nr. I: 1, 2 - vue sur les fosses qui constituait les rangées de poteaux; 4 - fosse nr. 1; 3, 5 - fosse nr. 8; 6 - fosse nr. 8a.

Ion Tentiuc, Octavian Munteanu
The connections of the East Carpathian region with the world of the Vikings: new find of the chape of the scabbard of an early medieval sword in the territory of Moldova
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XVI [XXXI], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică, Chişinău, 2022
Octavian Munteanu, Vasile Iarmulschi, Veronica Perju, Livia Ermurachi
The first building-phase of the fortification at Horodca Mică
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. IV [XIX], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
Octavian Munteanu, Nicolae Batog, Valeriu Prohniţchi
The Getic defensive system of Butuceni-West: details regarding the West No. 2 defensive line trajectory
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XII [XXVII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
Octavian Munteanu, Vasile Iarmulschi
Pilot excavations at Horodca Mică fortification
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. I [XVI], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică Chișinău, 2007
Aurel Zanoci, Octavian Munteanu, Ion Tentiuc, Valeriu Bubulici
New archaeological discoveries of the Iron Age sites near the village of Mana, Orhei District
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. IX [XXIV], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică Chișinău, 2015



 

 

Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age
  
  

Come to Museum! Discover the History!
  
Visit museum
Visit museum
Summer schedule: daily
10am – 6pm.

Winter schedule: daily
10am – 5pm.
Closed on Fridays.
Entrance fees:  adults - 10 MDL, pensioners, adults with moderate disabilities / disability of the 3rd degree, students - 5 MDL, school students - 2 MDL. Free access: enlisted men (...)

WiFi Free Wi-Fi Zone in the museum: In the courtyard of the National History Museum of Moldova there is Wi-Fi Internet access for visitors.


#Exhibit of the Month

Bronze cauldrons of the Scythian time are rare in the Northern Black Sea region, especially on its western borders. Therefore, those few items found on the territory of the Republic of Moldova occupy a worthy place in the collection of the National Museum of History of Moldova (NMHM)...

Read More >>

































The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

menu
The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC