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#Exhibit of the Month

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Amphoras are massive vessels originating from the ancient Greek world, executed on the potter's wheel, in which Greek merchants, in the process of their trade with other territories and peoples, transported, in particular, Greek wine, olive oil, salted olives, paints, nuts, etc. The shape of the Greek commercial amphora, in the opinion of some researchers, vaguely recalls the female figure, having, probably, at the beginning, a sacred character. Among the main features of the amphorae are well-thought-out metric proportions. The full amphora, placed in a horizontal position, rested on the body and on the elongated foot in such a way that the upper part of the vessel and the high neck were permanently raised obliquely, so that the liquid would not spill. The sharp shape of the foot required special fixation, either on special supports, or the lower part of the body was buried in the ground or sand. The deep inner cavity of the leg did not allow the liquid in the vessel to become cloudy during the transport process, the sediments remaining stored inside the leg.

Among the dozens of city-states in ancient Greece, which practiced trade with the local populations of the Black Sea region (Euxine Bridge), there is also the city of Mende (Μένδη), located on the Kassandra arm (Κασσάνδρας) of the Halkidiki peninsula (Halkidiki - Χαλκιδική). It is considered that the foundation of the city of Mende took place in the century VIII BC. The main article of trade of this Greek polis was wine, considered of superior quality and even indicated by Hippocrates as a medicine in the treatment of certain diseases. Starting with the century 6th century BC, the city of Mende experienced economic growth, especially in the Circumpontian region, and in the V-IV BC Mendiot wine appears more and more frequently in the local markets of this region.

Even some barbarian tribes, according to the Greek tradition, often used wine amphorae in the funeral process, when they were placed, as an offering, in the graves, together with other objects, which were either brought as an offering to the gods, or were intended to serve the deceased in the afterlife.

Such a funerary complex was discovered by archaeologist Nicolae Chetraru in 1987 - the Scythian tumulus no. 45 from Dubăsari. The deceased was cremated, and three amphorae and a large bronze cauldron were placed in the grave. Among the amphorae (all belonging to Greek wine centers) was one from Mende, along with two others from Chios. Since the wines of Mende and Chios were considered expensive wines, as was the bronze cauldron, their presence in this mound was an indication of a privileged financial and social position of the person cremated here.

The Mende amphora from tomb 1 of mound 45 at Dubăsari is, at the moment, the only complete vessel from this center on the territory of the Republic. Moldova, although fragments of Mendiot amphorae have also been discovered in other archaeological sites in the country.

The vessel is made of a yellowish-brown paste with chewed sand and many particles of mica. The amphora has the following basic dimensions: height - 740 mm, depth - 610 mm, maximum diameter - 390 mm.

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Publications Journal „Tyragetia"   vol. VII [XXII], nr. 1


Stone objects found in the settlements of Noua-Sabatinovka cultures in the Prut-Dniester area
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

Stone objects found in the settlements of Noua-Sabatinovka cultures in the Prut-Dniester area

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VII [XXII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică

As a result of archaeological research, which are carried out from 1950s to the present in the Prut-Dniester area, in the settlements, as well as through random findings, it was found about 412 artifacts of stone (scrapers, fragments of mills, discs, polishers, casting moulds, axes, etc.) and 129 ones of flint (hammerstones, knives, arrowheads, blades) relating to the Noua-Sabatinovka type. The article presents the categories of lithic objects and attempts to clarify their attribution.

List of illustrations:

Fig. 1. Stone scrapers: 1, 2, 7, 8 - Odaia-Miciurin (after Sava, Kaiser 2004, fig. 16/7, 63/2; Sava 2008, fig. 16/7, 24/5); 3, 4 - Căușeni (after Левинский 1986, рис. 8/1, 3); 5 - Petrușeni (after Sava 1992, fig. 6/1); 6 - Cobâlea (after Левицкий 1988, рис. 28/1).

Fig. 2. Grinders: 1, 2, 4 - Cobâlea (after Левицкий 1988, рис. 20/4, 23/3, 28/2); Petrușeni (after Sava 1992, рис. 6/4).

Fig. 3. Stone polishers: 1, 3, 6, 7 - Odaia-Miciurin (after Сава, Кайзер 2011, рис. 88/5, 6, 9, 13); 2 - Hansca (after Postică, Cavruc 1991, fig. 7/8); 4 - Čortovec' (after Крушельницька 2006, рис. 17/9). Grindstone: 5 - Petrușeni (After Sava 1992, fig. 6/5).

Fig. 4. Stone disks: 1-4 - Slobozia-Şireuți; 5, 6 - Cuconești; 7 - Fetești (after Ларина 1976, рис. 6/3); 8 - Odaia- Miciurin (after Sava 2008, fig. 36/9).

Fig. 5. Polishers: 1-5, 7, 10, 11 - Odaia-Miciurin (after Сава, Кайзер 2011, рис. 87/3-6, 9, 13); 6 - Nisporeni; 8 - Căușeni (after Левинский 1986, рис. 8/2); 9 - Cobâlea (after Левицкий 1988, рис. 18/6); 12 - Ghindești (after Мелюкова 1958, табл. XXVI/8). Hammerstones: 10, 14 - Odaia-Miciurin (after Сава, Кайзер 2011, рис. 87/14, 15); 13 - Ghindești (after Мелюкова 1957, табл. XIX/5); 15 - Novoselicja (after Тощев, Черняков 1986, рис. 6/11).

Fig. 6. Hoe: 1 - Slobozia-Şireuți (after Дергачев 1969, табл. III/26). Stone axes: 2 - Petrușeni (after Sava 1992, fig. 9/3); 3 - Ghindești (after Мелюкова 1957, табл. XIX/4); 4 - Mahala (after Смирнова 1972, рис. 6/11); 5 - Odaia-Miciurin (after Сава, Кайзер 2011, рис. 88/1); 6 - Slobozia-Şireuți; 7 - Căușeni (after Левинский 1986, рис. 7/1). Stone maces: 8, 10, 11 - Slobozia-Şireuți; 9 - Ghindești (after Мелюкова 1957, табл. XIX/3).

Fig. 7. Stone casting moulds: 1 - Cobâlea (after Левицкий 1988, рис. 27/1); 2, 6 - Ostrivec' (after Археология 1985, рис. 131/32, 36); 3, 8 - Odaia-Miciurin (after Сава, Кайзер 2011, рис. 88/2, 4); 4, 5 - Bălănești (after Sava 2011, Abb. 5/1, 6/1); 7 - Mahala (after Смирнова 1972, 24, рис. 9/1).

Fig. 8. Pestles/scepters: 1, 3, 6 - Chiperceni (after Савва 1987, рис. 2/9, 14, 3/9); 2 - Petreni (after Савва 1987, 64, рис. 2/4); 4 - Ghindești (after Мелюкова 1958, табл. XXVI/7); 7 - Stecivka (after Крушельницька 2006, рис. 13/6); 8 - Bahu (after Дергачев 2012, илл. II/35); 9, 10 - Odaia-Miciurin (after Сава, Кайзер 2011, рис. 87/11, 12). Stone pounder: 5 - Basarabeasca (after Савва 1987, рис. 2/24).

Fig. 9. Flint blades: 1, 6 - Cobâlea (after Левицкий 1988, рис. 4/7, 16/11); 2 - Slobozia-Şireuți; 3 - Petrușeni (after Левицкий 1985, рис. 16/12); 4 - Căușeni (after Левинский 1986, рис. 7/3); 5, 7-10 - Odaia-Miciurin (after Сава, Кайзер 2011, рис. 90/2, 4, 7-9). Flint arrowheads: 11, 12 - Cobâlea (after Левицкий 1988, рис. 4/3, 17/1); 13 - Odaia-Miciurin (after Сава, Кайзер 2011, рис. 90/1). Flint knives: 8, 10 - Petrușeni (after Левицкий 1985, рис. 15/21, 22); 9 - Slobozia-Şireuți (after Дергачев 1969, 121, табл. III/28). Flint hammerstones: 17, 19 - Petrușeni (after Sava 1992, fig. 9/4, 7); 18-21 - Slobozia-Şireuți; 22 - Odaia-Miciurin (after Сава, Кайзер 2011, рис. 89/1); 23 - Čortovec' (after Крушельницька 2006, 40, рис. 17/6).

Fig. 10. Stone and flint tools found in the area of the Noua-Sabatinovka cultural complex on the territory of Ukraine to the east of the Dniester and in Romania: 1, 2 - knives; 3, 4 - arrowheads; 5 - flint blade; 6, 7 - polishers; 8 - hammerstone; 9 - disk; 10, 15 - hoes; 11-13 - pestles / scepters; 14 - grindstone; 16 - pounder; 17 - casting mould; 18 - mace; 19, 22 - polishers; 20, 21 - axes. 1 - Trușești; 2 - Probota; 3, 4, 19 - Gârbovăț; 5, 14 - Dorobanțu; 6, 7, 13, 18 - Zlatopol; 8-10 - Novokievka; 11 - Voinești; 12, 15 - Sergeevskij Zaliv; 16 - Uškalka; 17 - Nicoleni; 20-22 - Tăvădărăști. 1-5, 11, 14, 17, 19-22 (after Florescu 1991, fig. 113/4; 158/5, 6; 159/6; 162/2, 5; 163/3, 8, 10; 164/2, 8); 6-10, 12, 13, 15, 16, 18 (after Gerškovič 1999, Taf. 9/10, 12; 10/2; 35/4, 9, 10; 45/8, 10).

Fig. 11. Stone and flint tools found in other cultures synchronous or partially synchronous to the Noua-Sabatinovka cultural complex. Cultures: Komarovo (1, 2, 10, 11, 13), Gava-Holigrady (4, 9), Belogrudovka (3, 5, 6, 12, 14), Belozerka (7, 8, 16), Srubna (15, 17). 1-5 - knives; 6 - arrowhead; 7 - pestle / scepter; 8, 9 - grindstones; 10, 11 - polishers; 12 - mace; 13 - spindle whorl; 14-16 - casting moulds; 17 - grinder. 1, 2, 10, 11 - Coteala; 3 - Kirovo; 4, 9, 13 - Miškovič; 5 - Belogrudovskij Les; 6, 14 - Sobkovka; 7 - Uškalka; 8 - Zapovitne; 12 - Andrusovka; 15 - Pilipčatino; 16 - Zavadovka; 17 - Iličovka. 1, 2, 10, 11 (after Sava 1994, fig. 3/19, 20, 30, 33); 3, 5-8, 12, 14-17 (after Археология 1985, рис. 112/40; 127/1, 20; 136/1, 4, 5, 7; 142/19, 44, 52); 4, 9, 13 (after Малеев 1976, рис. 2/7, 10, 11).

Mariana Sîrbu, Denis Topal, Eugen Sava, Lazar Dermenji
Bronze items discovered on the settlements of the Noua-Sabatinovka cultures from the collection of the National Museum of History of Moldova
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XIV [XXIX], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică, Chişinău, 2020
Mariana Sîrbu
The hoard of the late Bronze Age from the village of Antonești (the Cantemir District, Republic of Moldova
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VII [XXII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
Vasile Diaconu, Mariana Sîrbu
Uncommon practice of re-use of Bronze Age stone axes
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XII [XXVII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
Mariana Sîrbu, Stanislav Țerna
Stolniceni II – a new settlement with “ash lenses” discovered in the northern zone of the Republic of Moldova
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XI [XXVI], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
Mariana Sîrbu, Sergiu Popovici, Vlad Vornic
The hoard of bronze artifacts discovered near village Haragîş (Cantemir district)
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XIII [XXVIII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică



 

 

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#Exhibit of the Month

Amphoras are massive vessels originating from the ancient Greek world, executed on the potter's wheel, in which Greek merchants, in the process of their trade with other territories and peoples, transported, in particular, Greek wine, olive oil, salted olives, paints, nuts, etc. The shape of the Greek commercial amphora, in the opinion of some researchers, vaguely recalls the female figure, having, probably, at the beginning, a sacred character. Among the main features of the amphorae are well-thought-out metric proportions...

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC