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Amphoras are massive vessels originating from the ancient Greek world, executed on the potter's wheel, in which Greek merchants, in the process of their trade with other territories and peoples, transported, in particular, Greek wine, olive oil, salted olives, paints, nuts, etc. The shape of the Greek commercial amphora, in the opinion of some researchers, vaguely recalls the female figure, having, probably, at the beginning, a sacred character. Among the main features of the amphorae are well-thought-out metric proportions. The full amphora, placed in a horizontal position, rested on the body and on the elongated foot in such a way that the upper part of the vessel and the high neck were permanently raised obliquely, so that the liquid would not spill. The sharp shape of the foot required special fixation, either on special supports, or the lower part of the body was buried in the ground or sand. The deep inner cavity of the leg did not allow the liquid in the vessel to become cloudy during the transport process, the sediments remaining stored inside the leg.

Among the dozens of city-states in ancient Greece, which practiced trade with the local populations of the Black Sea region (Euxine Bridge), there is also the city of Mende (Μένδη), located on the Kassandra arm (Κασσάνδρας) of the Halkidiki peninsula (Halkidiki - Χαλκιδική). It is considered that the foundation of the city of Mende took place in the century VIII BC. The main article of trade of this Greek polis was wine, considered of superior quality and even indicated by Hippocrates as a medicine in the treatment of certain diseases. Starting with the century 6th century BC, the city of Mende experienced economic growth, especially in the Circumpontian region, and in the V-IV BC Mendiot wine appears more and more frequently in the local markets of this region.

Even some barbarian tribes, according to the Greek tradition, often used wine amphorae in the funeral process, when they were placed, as an offering, in the graves, together with other objects, which were either brought as an offering to the gods, or were intended to serve the deceased in the afterlife.

Such a funerary complex was discovered by archaeologist Nicolae Chetraru in 1987 - the Scythian tumulus no. 45 from Dubăsari. The deceased was cremated, and three amphorae and a large bronze cauldron were placed in the grave. Among the amphorae (all belonging to Greek wine centers) was one from Mende, along with two others from Chios. Since the wines of Mende and Chios were considered expensive wines, as was the bronze cauldron, their presence in this mound was an indication of a privileged financial and social position of the person cremated here.

The Mende amphora from tomb 1 of mound 45 at Dubăsari is, at the moment, the only complete vessel from this center on the territory of the Republic. Moldova, although fragments of Mendiot amphorae have also been discovered in other archaeological sites in the country.

The vessel is made of a yellowish-brown paste with chewed sand and many particles of mica. The amphora has the following basic dimensions: height - 740 mm, depth - 610 mm, maximum diameter - 390 mm.

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Publications Journal „Tyragetia"   vol. VII [XXII], nr. 1


Two new hoards and several solitary finds of metal items of the Bronze Age - Early Hallstatt periods in the territory of Republic of Moldova
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

Two new hoards and several solitary finds of metal items of the Bronze Age - Early Hallstatt periods in the territory of Republic of Moldova

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VII [XXII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică

The article publishes two new hoards and several solitary finds of bronze items from the Prut-Dniester interfluve. These finds can be dated the late Bronze Age and Early Hallstatt periods and relate to the Sabatinovka and Noua cultures, as well as to different early Hallstatt groups. Of special interest is the hoard from Brănești containing some types of items which until now were not known on the territories to the west from the Dniester. Also, remarkable is the structure of these two hoards, which may indicate a votive character of their deposition.

List of illustrations:

Fig. 1. Location of the hoards and solitary finds: 1 - Dămășcani; 2 - Şaptebani; 3 - Telenești; 4 - Lupa-Recea; 5 - Seliște; 6 - Brănești; 7 - Hîncești; 8 - Costești; 9 - Lipoveni; 10 - Soroca district; 11 - Cantemir district; 12 - Rezeni.

Fig. 2. Solitary finds from the Prut-Dniester interfluve: 1 - Hâncești; 2, 6, 9, 11 - Republic of Moldova, exact location unknown; 3 - Telenești; 4 - Seliște; 5 - Dămășcani; 7 - Şaptebani; 8 - Lupa-Recea; 10 - Costești; 12 - Cantemir district; 13 - Soroca district; 14 - Rezeni.

Fig. 3. Hoard from Lipoveni.

Fig. 4. The hoard from Brănești. Drawings.

Fig. 5. The hoard from Brănești. Photographs.

Fig. 6. Distribution of analogies for some items from the Brănești hoard in the Northern Pontic area: a-c - socketed axes (a. hoards, b. casting moulds, c. solitary finds); d-f - spears of Keliberda type (d. hoards, e. casting moulds, f. solitary finds). 1 - Brănești; 2 - Kremenchug; 3 - Kapulovka; 4 - Crimea; 5 - Zlatopol'; 6 - Laski; 7 - Volgograd museum; 8 - Dnepropetrovsk region; 9 - Loboikovka; 10 - Kabakovo; 11 - Soldatovo; 12 - Keliberda; 13 - Leopol'; 14 - Ivan'kovichi; 15 - Gogolev; 16 - Rep'evka; 17 - Karmanovo (after: Дергачев 2011; Клочко 2006; Ушурелу 2010; Шарафутдинова 1982; Bočkarev, Leskov 1980; Leskov 1981).

Денис Топал
Scythian bronze cauldrons from the National Museum of History of Moldova
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XIV [XXIX], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică, Chişinău, 2020
Stanislav Țerna
Late Tripolian settlement near the village of Volovița (Soroca District, Republic of Moldova)
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VIII [XXIII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
Denis Topal
Use of bronze in the producing of Early Scythian akinakai
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. IX [XXIV], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică Chișinău, 2015
Денис Топал
Akinakai on the western frontiers of Scythia. Scythian swords and daggers from the territory of the Republic of Moldova
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VIII [XXIII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
Денис Топал
Е. Сава, С. Агульников, И. Манзура, Исследования курганов в Буджакской степи (1980- 1985 гг.). Кишинев: Bons Offices, 2019, 368 с., ISBN: 978-9975-87-560-8
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XIV [XXIX], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică, Chişinău, 2020



 

 

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Time of Reforms and their Consequences
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Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
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Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
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Iron Age and Antiquity
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#Exhibit of the Month

Amphoras are massive vessels originating from the ancient Greek world, executed on the potter's wheel, in which Greek merchants, in the process of their trade with other territories and peoples, transported, in particular, Greek wine, olive oil, salted olives, paints, nuts, etc. The shape of the Greek commercial amphora, in the opinion of some researchers, vaguely recalls the female figure, having, probably, at the beginning, a sacred character. Among the main features of the amphorae are well-thought-out metric proportions...

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

menu
The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC