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Amphoras are massive vessels originating from the ancient Greek world, executed on the potter's wheel, in which Greek merchants, in the process of their trade with other territories and peoples, transported, in particular, Greek wine, olive oil, salted olives, paints, nuts, etc. The shape of the Greek commercial amphora, in the opinion of some researchers, vaguely recalls the female figure, having, probably, at the beginning, a sacred character. Among the main features of the amphorae are well-thought-out metric proportions. The full amphora, placed in a horizontal position, rested on the body and on the elongated foot in such a way that the upper part of the vessel and the high neck were permanently raised obliquely, so that the liquid would not spill. The sharp shape of the foot required special fixation, either on special supports, or the lower part of the body was buried in the ground or sand. The deep inner cavity of the leg did not allow the liquid in the vessel to become cloudy during the transport process, the sediments remaining stored inside the leg.

Among the dozens of city-states in ancient Greece, which practiced trade with the local populations of the Black Sea region (Euxine Bridge), there is also the city of Mende (Μένδη), located on the Kassandra arm (Κασσάνδρας) of the Halkidiki peninsula (Halkidiki - Χαλκιδική). It is considered that the foundation of the city of Mende took place in the century VIII BC. The main article of trade of this Greek polis was wine, considered of superior quality and even indicated by Hippocrates as a medicine in the treatment of certain diseases. Starting with the century 6th century BC, the city of Mende experienced economic growth, especially in the Circumpontian region, and in the V-IV BC Mendiot wine appears more and more frequently in the local markets of this region.

Even some barbarian tribes, according to the Greek tradition, often used wine amphorae in the funeral process, when they were placed, as an offering, in the graves, together with other objects, which were either brought as an offering to the gods, or were intended to serve the deceased in the afterlife.

Such a funerary complex was discovered by archaeologist Nicolae Chetraru in 1987 - the Scythian tumulus no. 45 from Dubăsari. The deceased was cremated, and three amphorae and a large bronze cauldron were placed in the grave. Among the amphorae (all belonging to Greek wine centers) was one from Mende, along with two others from Chios. Since the wines of Mende and Chios were considered expensive wines, as was the bronze cauldron, their presence in this mound was an indication of a privileged financial and social position of the person cremated here.

The Mende amphora from tomb 1 of mound 45 at Dubăsari is, at the moment, the only complete vessel from this center on the territory of the Republic. Moldova, although fragments of Mendiot amphorae have also been discovered in other archaeological sites in the country.

The vessel is made of a yellowish-brown paste with chewed sand and many particles of mica. The amphora has the following basic dimensions: height - 740 mm, depth - 610 mm, maximum diameter - 390 mm.

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Publications Journal „Tyragetia"   vol. VII [XXII], nr. 1


Einige Überlegungen bezüglich der Chronologie und Periodisierung der Poienești-Lucașeuca-Kultur
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

Einige Überlegungen bezüglich der Chronologie und Periodisierung der Poienești-Lucașeuca-Kultur

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VII [XXII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică



In diesem Beitrag wurden die Chronologie und Periodisierung der Poienești-Lucașeuca-Kultur analisiert. Vier Phasen der Entwicklung der Bestattungen aufgrund der Kombinationen der Gegenstände vom Grabinventar von isolierten Gräberfeldern / Gräber aufgebaut wurden. Trotzdem trifft man höchst selten in den Siedlungen des Poienești-Lucașeuca-Typs auf das chronologish erheblich Material, konnte ich die Chronologie für einigen Le- bensräume zu gründen. Ich habe vier chronologische Phasen abgeteilt durch eine Analyse der Chronologie der Bestattungen und Siedlungen des Poienești-Lucașeuca-Typs die in einer einheitlichen Tabelle vereignigt wurden. Man kann diese Etappen mit den Phasen LT C1b, LT C2, LT D1 und LT D2 der mitteleuropäischen keltichen Kultur synchronisieren oder mit den Etappen a, b, c und d der jüngeren vorrömischen Eisenzeit nach Hachmann, die in absoluten Daten entsprechen dem Ende 3en Jh. - letzten Viertel des 1es Jh. v. Chr.

Abbildungsliste:

Abb. 1. das Verbreitungsgebiet der Poienești-Lucașeuca-Kultur.

Abb. 2. Poienești. Typen der Grabbeigaben die für die Vergesellschaftung ausgewählt waren.

Abb. 3. Poienești. Die Vergesellschaftung der Gräber die Typen der Grabbeigaben enthälten.

Abb. 4. Poienești. Die Kartierung der Phasen des Gräberfelds.

Abb. 5. Borosești. Die Kartierung der Phasen des Gräberfelds.

Abb. 6. Borosești. Typen der Grabbeigaben die für die Vergesellschaftung ausgewählt waren.

Abb. 7. Borosești. Die Vergesellschaftung der Gräber die Typen der Grabbeigaben enthälten.

Abb. 8. Lucașeuca. Die Kartierung der Phasen des Gräberfelds.

Abb. 9. Dolineni. Die Kartierung der Phasen des Gräberfelds.

Abb. 10. Dolineni. Typen der Grabbeigaben die für die Vergesellschaftung ausgewählt waren.

Abb. 11. Dolineni. Die Vergesellschaftung der Gräber die Typen der Grabbeigaben enthälten.

Abb. 12. Typen der Grabbeigaben in Gräber/Gräberfelder vom Poienești-Lucașeuca-Typ.

Abb. 13. Die Vergesellschaftung der Gegenstände die in Gräber vom Typ Poienești-Lucașeuca chronologisch rele- vant sind.

Abb. 14. Die Periodisierung der Bestattungen.

Abb. 15. Die chronologische Rahmung der Datierungselemente von Gräber/ Gräberfeldern vom Typ Poienești- Lucașeuca.

Abb. 16. Die chronologische Rahmung der Datierungselemente von Bestattungen und Siedlungen vom Typ Poienești-Lucașeuca.

Abb. 17. Die vergleichende chronologische Tabelle der jüngeren vorrömischen Eisenzeit in Nord-und Mitteleuropa und in südöstliche Europa.

Vasile Iarmulschi
Michał Grygiel, Chronologia przemian kultorowych w dobie przełomu starzego i młodzego okresu przedrzymskiego na Niżu Polskim. Łódź: Fundacja Badań Archeologicznych Imienia Profesora Konrada Jażdżewskiego, 2018, 822 p., ISBN: 978-83-948140-2-1
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XV [XXX], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică, Chişinău, 2021
Vasile Iarmulschi
On the chronology of the La Tène cemetery at Cammer (Lkr. Potsdam-Mittelmark)
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XIII [XXVIII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
Vasile Iarmulschi
J. Brandt, B. Rauchfuß (Herausgeber), Das Jastorf-Konzept und die vorrömische Eisenzeit im nördlichen Mitteleuropa. Beiträge der Internationalen Tagung zum einhundertjährigen der Veröffetlichung der „Ältesten Urnenfriedhöfe bei Uelzen und Lüneburg" d
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. IX [XXIV], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
Octavian Munteanu, Vasile Iarmulschi, Veronica Perju, Livia Ermurachi
The first building-phase of the fortification at Horodca Mică
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. IV [XIX], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
Vasile Iarmulschi
Überlegungen zur Chronologie und Periodisierung den Siedlungen der Poieneşti-Lucaşeuca-Kultur
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XII [XXVII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică



 

 

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#Exhibit of the Month

Amphoras are massive vessels originating from the ancient Greek world, executed on the potter's wheel, in which Greek merchants, in the process of their trade with other territories and peoples, transported, in particular, Greek wine, olive oil, salted olives, paints, nuts, etc. The shape of the Greek commercial amphora, in the opinion of some researchers, vaguely recalls the female figure, having, probably, at the beginning, a sacred character. Among the main features of the amphorae are well-thought-out metric proportions...

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

menu
The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC