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The great ruler Stephen the Great, outstanding army commander and diplomat, was also concerned during his life with the economic prosperity of the country, supporting the development of crafts, trade and fairs. During his reign, groși and half groși minted in the dinar system were issued, a monetary system introduced in Moldova during the last reign of Petru Aron (1455-1457).

The coins were minted from silver of superior title, those that reflect stability in the economic life of the country at that time. Their masterful execution at the Suceava mint is among the beautiful artistic achievements during the reign of Stephen the Great.

During his reign, two types of issues were minted, for the two denominations: groși and half groși.

Type I issues have a split shield on the obverse; in the first quarter appears a rose surmounted by a cross and three fascias, in the second quarter. For the epigraph issues (groși), the image is accompanied by the circular legend with the name of the issuer: + STEFANVS VOIEVODA. On the other side appears the bour's head with a star between the horns accompanied by the heraldic furniture - the rose and the contoured crescent, placed to the right and left of the bour's head; circular legend: MOLDAVIE COIN.

On type II coins in the shield on the obverse appears a patriarchal cross (double) and the legend STEFANVSVOIEVOD or abbreviated STEFANVSVOIE. On the reverse, as in type I, the bour's head with heraldic attributes is preserved: rose right/crescent left and crescent right/rose left. A star or rose appears between the ox's horns. The legend accompanying the face with the bour head is MONETAMOLDAVI or abbreviated MONETAMOLDA.

The dating of Stephen the Great's coins is still under discussion. According to one opinion, type I issues were minted between 1457-1476, and type II between 1480/1481-1505 (Octavian Iliescu), and another 1465/1467-1475/1476 for type I and 1476/1479-1497 for type II (Ernest Oberländer-Târnoveanu).

The coins in this showcase were discovered during the archaeological excavations at Orheiul Vechi (Trebujeni, Orhei district) in the 6th and 7th decades of the 20th century:

1. Type I money issues, groși, silver
2. Type II money issues, groși, silver
3. Type II coin issue, half groși, silver

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Publications Journal „Tyragetia"   vol. IV [XIX], nr. 1


The first building-phase of the fortification at Horodca Mică
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

The first building-phase of the fortification at Horodca Mică

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. IV [XIX], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică

During four years time (2006-2009) regular investigations were undertaken in the area covered by the defensive line at Horodca Mică. We would like to emphasize that our field observations suggest the existence of several stages of fortification of the same space and what is visible today in the form of a hill of impressive dimensions, preceded by an adjacent ditch, are only ruins of the final phase of this defensive system. Since the stratigraphic picture is too complex to be present in its entire form (even preliminarily), we decided to focus on some particular aspects which can be introduced to an academic audience with sufficient confidence. Therefore we only focused on the first stage of fortification of the promontory of Horodca Mică.

To prove out point we present, primarily, a number of objective observations registered on the ground. Secondly, we explain our vision about how the defensive system was built in the first phase. Finally, we will analyze the techniques and materials used in constructions and their existing analogies, the available chronological markers, and the fate the fortification had.

In conclusion, we affirm that a complex defensive system was arranged in this space. The construction was based on a wooden case extended over 4.3 meters, and was filled up with soil that was excavated from its front. This formed a ditch measuring 7.8 meters at the opening and of 2.7 meters at its maximum depth. It should be noted that the ditch was at 3.7 meters distance from the limit of construction, forming in this way the traditional berm for such defensive systems. Similar edifices could be reported in the eastern Carpathian area and neighboring areas during the whole Latène period.

List of illustrations:
Fig. 1. Horodca Mică: 1 - Horodca Site location; 2 - topographic sketch of sections location drown in 2006-2009 years.
Fig. 2. Horodca Mică. Section nr. 1 in the area of I phase of fortification. Plan and profile.
Fig. 3. Horodca Mică 2009. Plan and profiles of the complexes from section nr. 1.
Fig. 4. Horodca Mică. Sight of the fortified enclosure: 1 - Southern view; 2 - Western view.
Fig. 5. Horodca Mică. Sight of the bastion: 1 - Southern view; 2 - Western view.
Fig. 6. Horodca Mică: 1 - sequence of research process of defensive system; 2 - Southern view of the section nr. 1 after releasing the beginning few layers.
Fig. 7. Horodca Mică. Sight of the fortification: 1 - Northerly view; 2 - Southern view.
Fig. 8. Horodca Mică. Section nr. 1. Sight of the West profile ith delimitation of the various phases of construction.
Fig. 9. Horodca Mică. The West profile of the section nr 1 with traces of defensive, I phase construction.
Fig. 10. Horodca Mică: 1 - sight of the burnt, clay concentration; 2 - view of the coal strip detected under agglomeration of soldering.
Fig. 11. Horodca Mică. Section nr. 1: 1 - sight of the West profile in the area of the ruins of the I phase construction; 2 - the agglomeration of soldering and wood coal.
Fig. 12. Horodca Mică. Section nr. 1: 1 - delimitation of the ground lenses between I phase of the constructions damage and II phase; 2 - the I phase ditch in the investigations process.
Fig. 13. Horodca Mică. Section nr. 1: 1 - the plan of the complexes nr. 26 and nr. 27 from Southern extreme of the I phase; 2 - The section of the complexes nr. 26 and nr. 27.
Fig. 14. Horodca Mică. Section nr. 1. Sight of the ditch were was identified complexes nr. 44 and 46: 1 - a general
view; 2 - sight of the Eastern view; 3 - sight of the Western view.
Fig. 15. Horodca Mică. Section nr. 1: 1 - sight of the complex nr 46 in the discovery phase; 2 - sight of the discovered complex nr. 46 and complex nr. 44 in the investigations process; 3 - sight of the complexes nr. 46 and 44.
Fig. 16. Horodca Mică. Section nr. 1. Sight of the discovery phase of complexes nr. 28 and nr. 29: 1 - a general view of the both complexes; 2 - complex nr. 28; 3 - complex nr. 29.
Fig. 17. Horodca Mică. Section nr. 1. Complexes nr. 28 and nr. 29: investigations process.
Fig. 18. Horodca Mică. Section nr. 1. Sight of the research phase of complexes nr. 28 and. 29: 1 - complex nr. 28; 2 - complex nr. 29.
Fig. 19. Horodca Mică. Section nr. 1. Sight of the complexes from A3 and A4 squares.

Vasile Iarmulschi
Die griechische Amphoren in der Poienești-Lucașeuca-Kultur
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VI [XXI], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
Octavian Munteanu, Vasile Iarmulschi
Pilot excavations at Horodca Mică fortification
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. I [XVI], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică Chișinău, 2007
Vasile Iarmulschi
Überlegungen zur Chronologie und Periodisierung den Siedlungen der Poieneşti-Lucaşeuca-Kultur
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XII [XXVII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
Octavian Munteanu
Les etapes d’édification de la fortification de Horodca Mică
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VII [XXII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
Vasile Iarmulschi
J. Brandt, B. Rauchfuß (Herausgeber), Das Jastorf-Konzept und die vorrömische Eisenzeit im nördlichen Mitteleuropa. Beiträge der Internationalen Tagung zum einhundertjährigen der Veröffetlichung der „Ältesten Urnenfriedhöfe bei Uelzen und Lüneburg" d
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. IX [XXIV], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică



 

 

Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
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#Exhibit of the Month

The great ruler Stephen the Great, outstanding army commander and diplomat, was also concerned during his life with the economic prosperity of the country, supporting the development of crafts, trade and fairs. During his reign, groși and half groși minted in the dinar system were issued, a monetary system introduced in Moldova during the last reign of Petru Aron (1455-1457)...

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

menu
The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC