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#Exhibit of the Month

It is a sports trophy obtained at an inter-school oina (a bat-and-ball game) competition in interwar Bessarabia. We don't know which schools participated in this competition, nor the venue, we only know that one of the winners received the second prize and that the event was held on May 13, 1934. In this way we learn about the existence of different sports competitions organized by schools, including the oina game. Oina is a beautiful and complex sports game that promotes the development of body and spirit, courage and the desire for self-improvement. Oina is a treasure of the Romanian people, which must be sacredly kept and passed on to future generations.

The oină or hoina game is considered a Romanian national sports game having a history of at least six centuries. The oina game is practiced continuously, according to the chronicles and deeds of the time at least from the 14th century, being mentioned for the first time in 1364, during the reign of Vlaicu Vodă. The game requires complex sports qualities (good running speed, fast reflexes in self-defense movements against the balls, accuracy in throwing and hitting the ball with a bat or stick). Oina is a sport that identifies us to the same extent as trânta, our national wrestling. The game becomes attractive among young people in the villages, enters the school curriculum through physical education lessons. Through the Education Reform of 1898, as well as through other ministerial decisions, Education Minister Spiru Haret introduces the compulsory oina lessons in all schools, as well as the annual oina competitions.

On May 9, 1899, in Bucharest, the first national oina championship was organized, the teams being made up of high school students. The winner was the team of Nicolae Bălcescu High School from Brăila.

In 1912, the Federation of the Romanian Sports Society (Bucharest) was created, which consisted of 13 sports commissions including the oina commission.

After the Union of 1918, the Federation of the Romanian Sports Society was reorganized in 1923, including the other oina sports commissions of Transylvania, Bukovina and Bessarabia.

In 1932, the Romanian Oina Federation was founded.

 
National Museum of History of Moldova
 

Publications Journal „Tyragetia"   vol. IV [XIX], nr. 1

The first building-phase of the fortification at Horodca Mică
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

The first building-phase of the fortification at Horodca Mică

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. IV [XIX], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică

During four years time (2006-2009) regular investigations were undertaken in the area covered by the defensive line at Horodca Mică. We would like to emphasize that our field observations suggest the existence of several stages of fortification of the same space and what is visible today in the form of a hill of impressive dimensions, preceded by an adjacent ditch, are only ruins of the final phase of this defensive system. Since the stratigraphic picture is too complex to be present in its entire form (even preliminarily), we decided to focus on some particular aspects which can be introduced to an academic audience with sufficient confidence. Therefore we only focused on the first stage of fortification of the promontory of Horodca Mică.

To prove out point we present, primarily, a number of objective observations registered on the ground. Secondly, we explain our vision about how the defensive system was built in the first phase. Finally, we will analyze the techniques and materials used in constructions and their existing analogies, the available chronological markers, and the fate the fortification had.

In conclusion, we affirm that a complex defensive system was arranged in this space. The construction was based on a wooden case extended over 4.3 meters, and was filled up with soil that was excavated from its front. This formed a ditch measuring 7.8 meters at the opening and of 2.7 meters at its maximum depth. It should be noted that the ditch was at 3.7 meters distance from the limit of construction, forming in this way the traditional berm for such defensive systems. Similar edifices could be reported in the eastern Carpathian area and neighboring areas during the whole Latène period.

List of illustrations:
Fig. 1. Horodca Mică: 1 - Horodca Site location; 2 - topographic sketch of sections location drown in 2006-2009 years.
Fig. 2. Horodca Mică. Section nr. 1 in the area of I phase of fortification. Plan and profile.
Fig. 3. Horodca Mică 2009. Plan and profiles of the complexes from section nr. 1.
Fig. 4. Horodca Mică. Sight of the fortified enclosure: 1 - Southern view; 2 - Western view.
Fig. 5. Horodca Mică. Sight of the bastion: 1 - Southern view; 2 - Western view.
Fig. 6. Horodca Mică: 1 - sequence of research process of defensive system; 2 - Southern view of the section nr. 1 after releasing the beginning few layers.
Fig. 7. Horodca Mică. Sight of the fortification: 1 - Northerly view; 2 - Southern view.
Fig. 8. Horodca Mică. Section nr. 1. Sight of the West profile ith delimitation of the various phases of construction.
Fig. 9. Horodca Mică. The West profile of the section nr 1 with traces of defensive, I phase construction.
Fig. 10. Horodca Mică: 1 - sight of the burnt, clay concentration; 2 - view of the coal strip detected under agglomeration of soldering.
Fig. 11. Horodca Mică. Section nr. 1: 1 - sight of the West profile in the area of the ruins of the I phase construction; 2 - the agglomeration of soldering and wood coal.
Fig. 12. Horodca Mică. Section nr. 1: 1 - delimitation of the ground lenses between I phase of the constructions damage and II phase; 2 - the I phase ditch in the investigations process.
Fig. 13. Horodca Mică. Section nr. 1: 1 - the plan of the complexes nr. 26 and nr. 27 from Southern extreme of the I phase; 2 - The section of the complexes nr. 26 and nr. 27.
Fig. 14. Horodca Mică. Section nr. 1. Sight of the ditch were was identified complexes nr. 44 and 46: 1 - a general
view; 2 - sight of the Eastern view; 3 - sight of the Western view.
Fig. 15. Horodca Mică. Section nr. 1: 1 - sight of the complex nr 46 in the discovery phase; 2 - sight of the discovered complex nr. 46 and complex nr. 44 in the investigations process; 3 - sight of the complexes nr. 46 and 44.
Fig. 16. Horodca Mică. Section nr. 1. Sight of the discovery phase of complexes nr. 28 and nr. 29: 1 - a general view of the both complexes; 2 - complex nr. 28; 3 - complex nr. 29.
Fig. 17. Horodca Mică. Section nr. 1. Complexes nr. 28 and nr. 29: investigations process.
Fig. 18. Horodca Mică. Section nr. 1. Sight of the research phase of complexes nr. 28 and. 29: 1 - complex nr. 28; 2 - complex nr. 29.
Fig. 19. Horodca Mică. Section nr. 1. Sight of the complexes from A3 and A4 squares.


 

 


Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age

  
  
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#Exhibit of the Month

It is a sports trophy obtained at an inter-school oina (a bat-and-ball game) competition in interwar Bessarabia. We don't know which schools participated in this competition, nor the venue, we only know that one of the winners received the second prize and that the event was held on May 13, 1934. In this way we learn about the existence of different sports competitions organized by schools, including the oina game. Oina is a beautiful and complex sports game that promotes the development of body and spirit, courage and the desire for self-improvement. Oina is a treasure of the Romanian people, which must be sacredly kept and passed on to future generations...

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