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#Exhibit of the Month

Pottery, especially fired clay vessels, is the most common archaeological material found at the sites of the Thracian-Getae-Dacian civilization.

Specific to the Getae ceramics is the hand-shaping of vessels, without a potter's wheel, unknown, by the way, to our most distant ancestors in the 6th-3rd centuries BC.

Getae potters used a porous clay body made of clay mixed with various ingredients like crushed shards and shells, crushed limestone, coarse sand, and so on to make their wares. When fired in special kiln, wares acquired different colors and shades: from black to gray or yellowish-red. The richest collection of Getae vessels on the territory of the Republic of Moldova comes from the Getae fortress of Butuceni, where for the first time in 1946 the Russian archaeologist G. Smirnov discovered the remains of the fortress with the remains of stone walls and earthen ramparts, which he called a Scythian fortress (sic!). The subsequent excavations for 20 years, with more or less lasting interruptions, revealed traces of intense habitation that lasted more than three centuries at a promontory near the village of Butuceni (The Old Orhei Cultural and Natural Reserve), of the largest Getae fortress on the territory of the Republic of Moldova.

Among the vessels discovered by archaeologists, there are some gigantic (analogues of these samples of Getae ceramic ware are currently not known). They are considered vessels for storing supplies, especially grain (it is known that the Getae, the sedentary people of these lands, were engaged in agriculture, cattle breeding and various crafts). Among the cereals grown by the Geto-Dacians, there were wheat, millet, barley, oats, and rye; such products, necessary for the local cuisine, had to be stored for a longer period under special conditions. For these purposes, large vessels (chiups) were used, placed in special places, usually in the cellars.

The chiup vessel from Butuceni is one of the oldest Getae ceramics in the present territory of the Republic of Moldova, discovered during the excavations of G. Smirnov in 1947. The vessel has an ovoid body with a long neck expanding towards the top and a large lip bent outward; it is equipped with four knobs located on the line of the maximum diameter of the body. The chiup is decorated with relief ornaments, different in shape and size, located in different parts of its body: "commas" (schematic rhytons (?)) and wavy lines in the shape of a horseshoe or omega. The color of the vessel varies from dark gray to yellowish; the surface is carefully polished.

Dimensions of the vessel: H - 680 mm; D max - 430 mm; D of the lip - 340x360 mm; H of the neck - 170 mm; D of the bottom - 170 mm.


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Publications Journal „Tyragetia"   vol. VII [XXII], nr. 1

Textiles from Scythian burial complexes
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

Textiles from Scythian burial complexes

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VII [XXII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică

Текстиль из погребальных комплексов скифов

В степях Северного Причерноморья раскопано более 3 тысяч скифских курганов. В исследованных погребениях обнаружено большое количество артефактов, однако изделия из кожи и текстиля сохраняются в единичных случаях. О костюме скифов некоторое представление дают произведения греческих мастеров. Прежде всего, это произведения торевтики - парадные металлические чаши, украшения горитов, нашивные бляшки и др. На них видны различные детали костюма. Иногда они настолько детализированы, что можно предположить материал и крой одежды. Однако, как правило, на этих предметах изображен костюм мужчин-воинов или амазонок. Повседневный костюм скифских женщин оставался без внимания мастеров.

В этой связи чрезвычайно важен погребальный комплекс 4 в. до н.э., открытый в кургане Вишневая Могила (Запорожская обл., Украина). В грунтовом склепе не потревоженным сохранилось захоронение де- вочки-скифянки. Уникальная сохранность текстильных и кожаных остатков позволила реконструировать весь многокомпонентный костюм скифянки. Он состоял из шести родов одежды: нательной, набедренной, плечевой, настопной, головного убора и съемных украшений. Различные части одежды сделаны из разных материалов, это: белая полотняная ткань, оранжевая атласная ткань, красновато-коричневая шерсть, черное сукно, мех, красная кожа.

Это единственный в Северном Причерноморье палеокостюмологический комплекс, являющийся в настоящее время эталонным примером женского костюма ранних номадов этого региона.

Список иллюстраций:

Рис. 1. Костюм скифского мужчины-воина на произведениях торевтики.

Рис. 2. Изображения женщин на произведениях искусства: 1, 2 - амазонки; 3, 4 - божества.

Рис. 3. Фрагменты различных тканей из скифских могил: 1 - курган Близнец-2; 2, 3 - Рыжановский курган.

Рис. 4. Курган Толстая Могила: 1 - золотые аппликации костюма на полу камеры; 2 - реконструкция парадного костюма (по Л. Клочко).

Рис. 5. Склеп №620 из Усть-Альминского некрополя: 1 - план погребальной камеры (фрагмент); 2 - реконструкция костюмного ансамбля (по Т. Крупе).

Рис. 6. Курган Вишневая Могила: 1 - план погребальной камеры (фрагмент); 2 - реконструкция плетеного гробовища (по Я. Прилипко и Ю. Болтрику).

Рис. 7. Курган Вишневая Могила. Детали костюма скифской девочки: 1-2 - безрукавка; 3, 4 - юбка-обгортка; 5-7 - нательная рубаха (по Я. Прилипко).

Рис. 8. Курган Вишневая Могила. Выкройка и реконструкция кожаных башмачков (по Я. Прилипко).

Рис. 9. Реконструкция костюмного ансамбля девочки из Вишневой Могилы (по Я. Прилипко и Ю. Болтрику).

Рис. 10. Реконструкция вертикального ткацкого станка из раскопок Бельского городища (по А. Щербаню).


 

 


Independent Moldova
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Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
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Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
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#Exhibit of the Month

Pottery, especially fired clay vessels, is the most common archaeological material found at the sites of the Thracian-Getae-Dacian civilization. Specific to the Getae ceramics is the hand-shaping of vessels, without a potter's wheel, unknown, by the way, to our most distant ancestors in the 6th-3rd centuries BC.Getae potters used a porous clay body made of clay mixed with various ingredients like crushed shards and shells, crushed limestone, coarse sand, and so on to make their wares. When fired in special kiln, wares acquired different colors and shades: from black to gray or yellowish-red. The richest collection of Getae vessels on the territory of the Republic of Moldova comes from the Getae fortress of Butuceni, where for the first time in 1946 the Russian archaeologist G. Smirnov discovered the remains of the fortress with the remains of stone walls and earthen ramparts, which he called a Scythian fortress (sic!)...

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2021 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2021 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

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