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#Exhibit of the Month

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The exhibit represents a fragment from a unique amphora discovered in 1988 in a ceramic kiln from the Chirileni III settlement (Sîngerei district), attributed to the Cucuteni-Tripolie archaeological culture stage CII (5th-4th millennia BC).

The ceramic fragment with painted human and geometric representations constitutes about 50% of the upper part of an amphora, made of clay paste without impurities. It is burned in an oxidizing environment, with a reddish color in the section. The inner surface of the vessel is covered with a pink-whitish color layer, and the smoothed and polished exterior is covered with a yellowish-gray engobe start. The body of the amphora is spheroidal with four pyramidal cakes on the shoulder, and the neck is high frustoconical with a short outwardly turned lip. The dimensions of the bowl: lip diameter - 18 cm; maximum body diameter - 43-45 cm; neck height - 13 cm; height of exposed fragment - 43 cm; the estimated total height of the vessel is 55-60 cm. Thickness at the lip - 6-7 mm, at the neck - 9-11 mm, and at the body - 10-13 mm.

The outer surface of the amphora in a proportion of about 4/5, except for the lower part, is bicolorly decorated with black and brown paint, the brush being used as a tool, which can be felt from the specific application of the lines. Two brushes were most likely used. The ornament is divided into three horizontal registers that surround the vessel dividing the interior into metopes. The decoration is composed of lines arranged vertically, horizontally or obliquely forming geometric compositions of the net type.

The special significance of the amphora resides in the representation in the middle register of the painting of the stylized scene of a female ritual dance. The scene painted on the body of the amphora represents the image of a group made up of 9 female characters assisted by two dogs and 3 snakes. The female images are represented schematically, with the emphasis on long legs, mini-trapezoidal skirts, short stretched bodies, folded dancing hands and pointed heads.

Vessels with painted anthropomorphic representations are very rare, being around 140 images of this kind known so far in the entire area of spread of the Cucuteni-Tripoli culture.

Based on the analysis of the shape of the vessel, the specific decoration and the context of the discovery, it can be admitted that the amphora from Chirileni belongs to the cult of the Mother Woman, the Great Goddess worshiped by the Eneolithic populations.


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Publications Journal „Tyragetia"   vol. VII [XXII], nr. 1


The Royal Cemetery at Ur and Early Wheels
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

The Royal Cemetery at Ur and Early Wheels

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VII [XXII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică

 
Царский некрополь Ура и конструкция древних колес

На основе анализа данных о конструкции колес из Царского некрополя Ура - фрагменте каменной плитке, мозаичном «Штандарте» и колес повозок из погребений, а также привлечения находок, открытых на других памятниках, автор приходит к выводу, что на Древнем Востоке колеса трехчастной конструкции с серединой линзовидной формы вышли из употре��ления уже до рубежа IV-III тыс. до н.э. Когда у реальных повозок использовались уже трехчастные колеса, у которых средняя часть имела прямые параллельные стороны, колеса с линзовидной серединой продолжали изображать на печатях и посвятительных плитках, копируя их с более древних образцов.

Колеса реальных повозок рубежа IV-III тыс. до н.э., открытые в подкурганных погребениях Понто- Каспийской степи, имели среднюю часть с прямолинейными сторонами, т.е. конструкцию следующего этапа развития конструкции колеса. Поскольку, предположительно, первые колеса были сплошные одночастные и требовалось время на развитие трехчастной конструкции с серединой линзовидной, а затем и прямолинейной формы, появление колеса на Древнем Востоке должно датироваться значительно более ранним временем, чем это принято считать - не позднее начала IV тыс. до н.э.

Список иллюстраций:

Рис. 1. Фрагмент каменной плитки. Ур (по Woolley 1934, plate 181b).

Рис. 2. Панель «Война» мозаичного «Штандарта». Ур (по Woolley 1934, plate 92).

Рис. 3. Отпечатки колес повозок в погребениях PG 789 (a-b) и PG 1232 (c), Ур (по Woolley 1934, plate 33, 62а). Рис. 4. Изображение повозки в «Реконструкции погребальной сцены в PG 789» (по Woolley 1934, plate 30). Рис. 5. Изображение повозки в верхнем регистре «Штандарта».

Рис. 6. Изображения повозок в нижнем регистре «Штандарта» (первая и вторая слева) Рис. 7. Изображение повозки в нижнем регистре «Штандарта» (третья слева)

Рис. 8. Колесо, Сузы (по Littauer, Crouwel 1979, fig. 5).

Рис. 9. Колесо, Мари (по Butterlin, Margueron 2006, fig. 3).

Рис. 10. Изображения колес (фрагменты мозаики), Мари (а - по Parrot 1971, fig. 10), (b-f - по Parrot 1967, pl. LXV/2462-2464; fig. 262/2465, 2598; 2466).

Рис. 11. Фрагмент каменной плитки. Хафадже (по Boese 1971, Taf. VIII).

Рис. 12. Глиняные модели колес: a-b - Телль Брак (по Oates et al. 2001, fig. 488/36, 39), c - Чагар Базар (по Mallowan 1936, fig. 6/8); d - Телль Халава А (по Neufang, Pruβ 1994, Abb. 52/114). a - д=4 cm; b - д=7,1 cm; c - д=3,5 cm; d - д=10,5 cm

Рис. 13. Оттиск цилиндрической печати. Ур (по Amiet 1980, pl. 96/1260).

Рис. 14. Оттиск цилиндрической печати. Ур (по Amiet 1980, pl. 92/1216).

Рис. 15. Оттиск цилиндрической печати. Месопотамия (по Amiet 1980, pl. 92/1215).

Рис. 16. Оттиск цилиндрической печати (деталь). Месопотамия (по Littauer, Crouwel 1979, fig. 13).

Рис. 17. Чертеж отливки повозки из погребения новотитаровской культуры, Прикубанье (по Анфимов 1986).

Рис. 18. Остатки повозки в погребении новотитаровской культуры. Прикубанье (из архива И.И. Марченко и Н.Ю. Лимберис).

Elena Izbitser
Bulls and Wagons: an “innovative” approach to representing archaeological data
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XII [XXVII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
Елена Избицер
Professional ethics and subjectivity: regarding one monograph and two reviews
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. IX [XXIV], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică Chișinău, 2015
Elena Izbitser
Novokorsunskaya 2/18, A Grave with a Wagon: work on mistakes
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XI [XXVI], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
Elena Izbitser
The Iron Curtain and Eurasian Archaeology
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VI [XXI], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
Елена Избицер
Wagon burials in pits of the Middle Bronze Age in the Don River basin
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XIII [XXVIII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică



 

 

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#Exhibit of the Month

The exhibit represents a fragment from a unique amphora discovered in 1988 in a ceramic kiln from the Chirileni III settlement (Sîngerei district), attributed to the Cucuteni-Tripolie archaeological culture stage CII (5th-4th millennia BC)...

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2023 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2023 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2023 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC