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Amphoras are massive vessels originating from the ancient Greek world, executed on the potter's wheel, in which Greek merchants, in the process of their trade with other territories and peoples, transported, in particular, Greek wine, olive oil, salted olives, paints, nuts, etc. The shape of the Greek commercial amphora, in the opinion of some researchers, vaguely recalls the female figure, having, probably, at the beginning, a sacred character. Among the main features of the amphorae are well-thought-out metric proportions. The full amphora, placed in a horizontal position, rested on the body and on the elongated foot in such a way that the upper part of the vessel and the high neck were permanently raised obliquely, so that the liquid would not spill. The sharp shape of the foot required special fixation, either on special supports, or the lower part of the body was buried in the ground or sand. The deep inner cavity of the leg did not allow the liquid in the vessel to become cloudy during the transport process, the sediments remaining stored inside the leg.

Among the dozens of city-states in ancient Greece, which practiced trade with the local populations of the Black Sea region (Euxine Bridge), there is also the city of Mende (Μένδη), located on the Kassandra arm (Κασσάνδρας) of the Halkidiki peninsula (Halkidiki - Χαλκιδική). It is considered that the foundation of the city of Mende took place in the century VIII BC. The main article of trade of this Greek polis was wine, considered of superior quality and even indicated by Hippocrates as a medicine in the treatment of certain diseases. Starting with the century 6th century BC, the city of Mende experienced economic growth, especially in the Circumpontian region, and in the V-IV BC Mendiot wine appears more and more frequently in the local markets of this region.

Even some barbarian tribes, according to the Greek tradition, often used wine amphorae in the funeral process, when they were placed, as an offering, in the graves, together with other objects, which were either brought as an offering to the gods, or were intended to serve the deceased in the afterlife.

Such a funerary complex was discovered by archaeologist Nicolae Chetraru in 1987 - the Scythian tumulus no. 45 from Dubăsari. The deceased was cremated, and three amphorae and a large bronze cauldron were placed in the grave. Among the amphorae (all belonging to Greek wine centers) was one from Mende, along with two others from Chios. Since the wines of Mende and Chios were considered expensive wines, as was the bronze cauldron, their presence in this mound was an indication of a privileged financial and social position of the person cremated here.

The Mende amphora from tomb 1 of mound 45 at Dubăsari is, at the moment, the only complete vessel from this center on the territory of the Republic. Moldova, although fragments of Mendiot amphorae have also been discovered in other archaeological sites in the country.

The vessel is made of a yellowish-brown paste with chewed sand and many particles of mica. The amphora has the following basic dimensions: height - 740 mm, depth - 610 mm, maximum diameter - 390 mm.

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Publications Journal „Tyragetia"   vol. VII [XXII], nr. 1


The Royal Cemetery at Ur and Early Wheels
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

The Royal Cemetery at Ur and Early Wheels

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VII [XXII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică

 
Царский некрополь Ура и конструкция древних колес

На основе анализа данных о конструкции колес из Царского некрополя Ура - фрагменте каменной плитке, мозаичном «Штандарте» и колес повозок из погребений, а также привлечения находок, открытых на других памятниках, автор приходит к выводу, что на Древнем Востоке колеса трехчастной конструкции с серединой линзовидной формы вышли из употре��ления уже до рубежа IV-III тыс. до н.э. Когда у реальных повозок использовались уже трехчастные колеса, у которых средняя часть имела прямые параллельные стороны, колеса с линзовидной серединой продолжали изображать на печатях и посвятительных плитках, копируя их с более древних образцов.

Колеса реальных повозок рубежа IV-III тыс. до н.э., открытые в подкурганных погребениях Понто- Каспийской степи, имели среднюю часть с прямолинейными сторонами, т.е. конструкцию следующего этапа развития конструкции колеса. Поскольку, предположительно, первые колеса были сплошные одночастные и требовалось время на развитие трехчастной конструкции с серединой линзовидной, а затем и прямолинейной формы, появление колеса на Древнем Востоке должно датироваться значительно более ранним временем, чем это принято считать - не позднее начала IV тыс. до н.э.

Список иллюстраций:

Рис. 1. Фрагмент каменной плитки. Ур (по Woolley 1934, plate 181b).

Рис. 2. Панель «Война» мозаичного «Штандарта». Ур (по Woolley 1934, plate 92).

Рис. 3. Отпечатки колес повозок в погребениях PG 789 (a-b) и PG 1232 (c), Ур (по Woolley 1934, plate 33, 62а). Рис. 4. Изображение повозки в «Реконструкции погребальной сцены в PG 789» (по Woolley 1934, plate 30). Рис. 5. Изображение повозки в верхнем регистре «Штандарта».

Рис. 6. Изображения повозок в нижнем регистре «Штандарта» (первая и вторая слева) Рис. 7. Изображение повозки в нижнем регистре «Штандарта» (третья слева)

Рис. 8. Колесо, Сузы (по Littauer, Crouwel 1979, fig. 5).

Рис. 9. Колесо, Мари (по Butterlin, Margueron 2006, fig. 3).

Рис. 10. Изображения колес (фрагменты мозаики), Мари (а - по Parrot 1971, fig. 10), (b-f - по Parrot 1967, pl. LXV/2462-2464; fig. 262/2465, 2598; 2466).

Рис. 11. Фрагмент каменной плитки. Хафадже (по Boese 1971, Taf. VIII).

Рис. 12. Глиняные модели колес: a-b - Телль Брак (по Oates et al. 2001, fig. 488/36, 39), c - Чагар Базар (по Mallowan 1936, fig. 6/8); d - Телль Халава А (по Neufang, Pruβ 1994, Abb. 52/114). a - д=4 cm; b - д=7,1 cm; c - д=3,5 cm; d - д=10,5 cm

Рис. 13. Оттиск цилиндрической печати. Ур (по Amiet 1980, pl. 96/1260).

Рис. 14. Оттиск цилиндрической печати. Ур (по Amiet 1980, pl. 92/1216).

Рис. 15. Оттиск цилиндрической печати. Месопотамия (по Amiet 1980, pl. 92/1215).

Рис. 16. Оттиск цилиндрической печати (деталь). Месопотамия (по Littauer, Crouwel 1979, fig. 13).

Рис. 17. Чертеж отливки повозки из погребения новотитаровской культуры, Прикубанье (по Анфимов 1986).

Рис. 18. Остатки повозки в погребении новотитаровской культуры. Прикубанье (из архива И.И. Марченко и Н.Ю. Лимберис).

Елена Избицер
Wagon burials in pits of the Middle Bronze Age in the Don River basin
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XIII [XXVIII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
Elena Izbitser
The Iron Curtain and Eurasian Archaeology
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VI [XXI], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
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Bulls and Wagons: an “innovative” approach to representing archaeological data
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XII [XXVII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
Elena Izbitser
Novokorsunskaya 2/18, A Grave with a Wagon: work on mistakes
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XI [XXVI], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
Елена Избицер
Professional ethics and subjectivity: regarding one monograph and two reviews
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. IX [XXIV], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică Chișinău, 2015



 

 

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#Exhibit of the Month

Amphoras are massive vessels originating from the ancient Greek world, executed on the potter's wheel, in which Greek merchants, in the process of their trade with other territories and peoples, transported, in particular, Greek wine, olive oil, salted olives, paints, nuts, etc. The shape of the Greek commercial amphora, in the opinion of some researchers, vaguely recalls the female figure, having, probably, at the beginning, a sacred character. Among the main features of the amphorae are well-thought-out metric proportions...

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC