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#Exhibit of the Month

From the early days of Christianity, the cross meant not only an instrument of torture, but also a symbol of victory over death, a symbol of salvation. The object is made of silver, having the shape of a Byzantine cross with trapezoidal edges of the arms. The side arms and the one at the bottom seem to be turned inside a vessel (chalice (?)) with the trapezoidal "foot". The arms of the cross and of the "chalice" were ended with a decorative element in the shape of a sphere (drop). The cross has a decoration in relief, executed in the technique of filigree and granulation, consisting of drops, double and triple cords, circles with a drop in the center, and trefoils (?). In the center of the cross, at the intersection of the arms, there is a round mount with a cord-like edge, in which the pomegranate fruit is located. However, the main decorative element is the images of four peacocks turned to the right, with a snake in the beak, arranged on all the arms of the cross. The image of the peacocks is rendered in an artistic way, and their tails are stylized in the shape of a palmette.
The peacock, originated from India, due to its luxurious fan-shaped tail, was considered a symbol of the Sun. In ancient Greece, they were considered the sacred birds of the goddess Hera, and in ancient Rome they were considered the sacred birds of the goddess Juno. In Kievan Rus', the peacock (the Firebird) also symbolized the Sun. In the West, the peacock was considered a snake killer, and the iridescent colors of its tail were attributed to its ability to turn snake venom into solar substance. Since snakes in Iranian symbolism were considered enemies of the sun, it was believed that the peacock killed snakes, in order to create "eyes" from their saliva, iridescent with a bronze-green and gold-blue color on the feathers of its tail. Due to the bright splendor of the male peacock's tail, it has been compared with immortal gods and, therefore, with immortality. Peacocks are known as an emblem of greatness, royal authority, spiritual superiority, ideal creation.

In the early period of Christianity, the peacock was a symbol of love, resurrection, immortality, beauty, eternity of the soul, the all-seeing eye of the Church, and the peacock feather was the emblem of Saint Barbara. The image of peacocks with snakes in their beaks on the cross is not at all accidental; it symbolizes the victory of Christ over evil.

On the back side of the cross, traces of fixing are preserved, probably of a pin (missing), so the object served as a brooch (fibula), which was probably attached to the fabric. The piece is presumably dated back to the 9th-12th centuries.

The object has the following dimensions: height - 125 mm; width - 86 mm; weight - 47 g.


 
National Museum of History of Moldova
 

Publications Journal „Tyragetia"   vol. VII [XXII], nr. 1

Investigations of a mega-structure at the Trypillian culture settlement near Nebelivka in 2012
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

Investigations of a mega-structure at the Trypillian culture settlement near Nebelivka in 2012

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VII [XXII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică

In 2012 the British-Ukrainian expedition continued investigations at the Trypillian culture settlement near Nebelivka. The main aim of the field season was exploration of the largest object in the area (about 20×60 m), which was detected in 2012 by magnetic prospection. The investigations were funded by AHRC (Grant No. AH/I025867: 2012-2016) and the National Geographic Society (Grant No. 2012/211). Results of the excavations have confirmed the size of the site and have provided important information on this structure.

List of illustrations:

Fig. 1. Nebelivka. Plan of the site according to the magnetic survey: 1 - general plan; 2 - plot with the mega-structure (object B5).

Fig. 2. Nebelivka. General view on the place of the Trypillian culture settlement: 1 - photo taken by means of a kite (north-west direction); 2 - on the south side, from the opposite slope of the river valley.

Fig. 3. Nebelivka. Mega-structure, as seen from a kite: 1 - after clearing daubing strata; 2 - after the removal of the upper daubing stratum.

Fig. 4. Nebelivka. Exploration of the mega-structure: 1-3 - general view of the excavation process; 4 - after ending of the clearing burnt daubing layer.

Fig. 5. Nebelivka. Mega-structure, the western part, burnt daubing: 1 - near elevation No.1; 2 - near elevation No.7; 3 - near elevation No.2, view from S.

Fig. 6. Nebelivka. Mega-structure, the western part, location of the main constructions: a - milling stone; b - clay bin with milling stone; c - elevation No.2; d - elevation No.4; de - threshold; e - podium; f - elevation No.1; g - elevation No.3; h - place with broken pots and bowls over the pit near elevation №5; i - elevation №5; j - elevation No.6; k - remains of clay arc; l, r - strips of burnt daubing at eastern part; m - threshold; n, o, p - thresholds; q - elevation No.7.

Fig. 7. Nebelivka. Mega-structure, the western part, round elevation: 1-2 - elevation and broken pots; 3 - elevation after removing of pottery.

Fig. 8. Nebelivka. Mega-structure, the western part, podium: 1, 2 - general view; 3, 4 - cross-sections; 5 - part near the wall.

Fig. 9. Nebelivka. Mega-structure, the western part, remains of a pithos near the podium: 1, 2 - fragments with decoration; 3 - remains of pithos and other pottery.

Fig. 10. Nebelivka. Mega-structure, the western part, pithoi: 1 - pieces of pithos after clearing; 2 - wreckage of the pithos in the course of picking; 3 - fragment of a pithos with decoration; 4 - broken small pithos.

Fig. 11. Nebelivka. Mega-structure, the western part, elevations on the ground surface: 1 - elevation №4; 2-3 - elevation No.2, general view and a fragment of the blade with rims; 4 - cross-section of elevation No.4; 5 - cross-section of elevation No.2.

Fig. 12. Nebelivka. Mega-structure, the western part of excavation, elevation No.2: 1 - general view, to the right - clay bin with milling stone; 2 - fragment of an edge of elevation No.2 with in-depth ornament; 3 - part of elevation No.2; 4 - explorations of elevation No.2.

Fig. 13. Nebelivka. Mega-structure, the western part of excavation: elevation №7: 1 - general view after clearing; 2 - after preparations to take as a monolith; 3 - fragment with decorations.

Fig. 14. Nebelivka. Mega-structure, the western part, clay bin: 1 - at the beginning of explorations; 2 - after the cleaning.

Fig. 15. Nebelivka. Mega-structure, the western part of excavation, clay bin with milling stone: 1 - corner and a broken pot inside; 2 - coating of the bottom and the remains of a construction in the center; 3 - fragment of a rim; 4 - corner.

Fig. 16. Nebelivka, Mega-structure, the western part of excavation, milling stone and remains of the second (?) rectangular structure.

Fig. 17. Nebelivka. Mega-structure, the western part of excavation, remains of thresholds: 1 - the main entrance on the east side; 2 - entrance to the left room.

Fig. 18. Nebelivka. Mega-structure, the western part of excavation, remains of the threshold from the western side.

Fig. 19. Nebelivka. Mega-structure, eastern part of excavation, strips of daubing: 1, 2, 4 - general views of the southern strip; 3 - cross-section of the northern strip.

Fig. 20. Nebelivka. Mega-structure, the western part of excavation: pottery among strata of burnt daubing.

Fig. 21. Nebelivka. Mega-structure, the western part of excavation: broken pottery and bowls over the pit near elevation No.5.

Fig. 22. Nebelivka. Mega-structure, the western part of excavation, finds: 1 - part of a necklace made of yellow metal; 2 - pendant made of the tooth of a predatory animal.


 

 


Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
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#Exhibit of the Month

From the early days of Christianity, the cross meant not only an instrument of torture, but also a symbol of victory over death, a symbol of salvation. The object is made of silver, having the shape of a Byzantine cross with trapezoidal edges of the arms. The side arms and the one at the bottom seem to be turned inside a vessel (chalice (?)) with the trapezoidal "foot". The arms of the cross and of the "chalice" were ended with a decorative element in the shape of a sphere (drop). The cross has a decoration in relief, executed in the technique of filigree and granulation, consisting of drops, double and triple cords, circles with a drop in the center, and trefoils (?). In the center of the cross, at the intersection of the arms, there is a round mount with a cord-like edge, in which the pomegranate fruit is located...

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