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Amphoras are massive vessels originating from the ancient Greek world, executed on the potter's wheel, in which Greek merchants, in the process of their trade with other territories and peoples, transported, in particular, Greek wine, olive oil, salted olives, paints, nuts, etc. The shape of the Greek commercial amphora, in the opinion of some researchers, vaguely recalls the female figure, having, probably, at the beginning, a sacred character. Among the main features of the amphorae are well-thought-out metric proportions. The full amphora, placed in a horizontal position, rested on the body and on the elongated foot in such a way that the upper part of the vessel and the high neck were permanently raised obliquely, so that the liquid would not spill. The sharp shape of the foot required special fixation, either on special supports, or the lower part of the body was buried in the ground or sand. The deep inner cavity of the leg did not allow the liquid in the vessel to become cloudy during the transport process, the sediments remaining stored inside the leg.

Among the dozens of city-states in ancient Greece, which practiced trade with the local populations of the Black Sea region (Euxine Bridge), there is also the city of Mende (Μένδη), located on the Kassandra arm (Κασσάνδρας) of the Halkidiki peninsula (Halkidiki - Χαλκιδική). It is considered that the foundation of the city of Mende took place in the century VIII BC. The main article of trade of this Greek polis was wine, considered of superior quality and even indicated by Hippocrates as a medicine in the treatment of certain diseases. Starting with the century 6th century BC, the city of Mende experienced economic growth, especially in the Circumpontian region, and in the V-IV BC Mendiot wine appears more and more frequently in the local markets of this region.

Even some barbarian tribes, according to the Greek tradition, often used wine amphorae in the funeral process, when they were placed, as an offering, in the graves, together with other objects, which were either brought as an offering to the gods, or were intended to serve the deceased in the afterlife.

Such a funerary complex was discovered by archaeologist Nicolae Chetraru in 1987 - the Scythian tumulus no. 45 from Dubăsari. The deceased was cremated, and three amphorae and a large bronze cauldron were placed in the grave. Among the amphorae (all belonging to Greek wine centers) was one from Mende, along with two others from Chios. Since the wines of Mende and Chios were considered expensive wines, as was the bronze cauldron, their presence in this mound was an indication of a privileged financial and social position of the person cremated here.

The Mende amphora from tomb 1 of mound 45 at Dubăsari is, at the moment, the only complete vessel from this center on the territory of the Republic. Moldova, although fragments of Mendiot amphorae have also been discovered in other archaeological sites in the country.

The vessel is made of a yellowish-brown paste with chewed sand and many particles of mica. The amphora has the following basic dimensions: height - 740 mm, depth - 610 mm, maximum diameter - 390 mm.

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Publications Journal „Tyragetia"   vol. VII [XXII], nr. 1


Investigations of a mega-structure at the Trypillian culture settlement near Nebelivka in 2012
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

Investigations of a mega-structure at the Trypillian culture settlement near Nebelivka in 2012

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VII [XXII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică

In 2012 the British-Ukrainian expedition continued investigations at the Trypillian culture settlement near Nebelivka. The main aim of the field season was exploration of the largest object in the area (about 20×60 m), which was detected in 2012 by magnetic prospection. The investigations were funded by AHRC (Grant No. AH/I025867: 2012-2016) and the National Geographic Society (Grant No. 2012/211). Results of the excavations have confirmed the size of the site and have provided important information on this structure.

List of illustrations:

Fig. 1. Nebelivka. Plan of the site according to the magnetic survey: 1 - general plan; 2 - plot with the mega-structure (object B5).

Fig. 2. Nebelivka. General view on the place of the Trypillian culture settlement: 1 - photo taken by means of a kite (north-west direction); 2 - on the south side, from the opposite slope of the river valley.

Fig. 3. Nebelivka. Mega-structure, as seen from a kite: 1 - after clearing daubing strata; 2 - after the removal of the upper daubing stratum.

Fig. 4. Nebelivka. Exploration of the mega-structure: 1-3 - general view of the excavation process; 4 - after ending of the clearing burnt daubing layer.

Fig. 5. Nebelivka. Mega-structure, the western part, burnt daubing: 1 - near elevation No.1; 2 - near elevation No.7; 3 - near elevation No.2, view from S.

Fig. 6. Nebelivka. Mega-structure, the western part, location of the main constructions: a - milling stone; b - clay bin with milling stone; c - elevation No.2; d - elevation No.4; de - threshold; e - podium; f - elevation No.1; g - elevation No.3; h - place with broken pots and bowls over the pit near elevation №5; i - elevation №5; j - elevation No.6; k - remains of clay arc; l, r - strips of burnt daubing at eastern part; m - threshold; n, o, p - thresholds; q - elevation No.7.

Fig. 7. Nebelivka. Mega-structure, the western part, round elevation: 1-2 - elevation and broken pots; 3 - elevation after removing of pottery.

Fig. 8. Nebelivka. Mega-structure, the western part, podium: 1, 2 - general view; 3, 4 - cross-sections; 5 - part near the wall.

Fig. 9. Nebelivka. Mega-structure, the western part, remains of a pithos near the podium: 1, 2 - fragments with decoration; 3 - remains of pithos and other pottery.

Fig. 10. Nebelivka. Mega-structure, the western part, pithoi: 1 - pieces of pithos after clearing; 2 - wreckage of the pithos in the course of picking; 3 - fragment of a pithos with decoration; 4 - broken small pithos.

Fig. 11. Nebelivka. Mega-structure, the western part, elevations on the ground surface: 1 - elevation №4; 2-3 - elevation No.2, general view and a fragment of the blade with rims; 4 - cross-section of elevation No.4; 5 - cross-section of elevation No.2.

Fig. 12. Nebelivka. Mega-structure, the western part of excavation, elevation No.2: 1 - general view, to the right - clay bin with milling stone; 2 - fragment of an edge of elevation No.2 with in-depth ornament; 3 - part of elevation No.2; 4 - explorations of elevation No.2.

Fig. 13. Nebelivka. Mega-structure, the western part of excavation: elevation №7: 1 - general view after clearing; 2 - after preparations to take as a monolith; 3 - fragment with decorations.

Fig. 14. Nebelivka. Mega-structure, the western part, clay bin: 1 - at the beginning of explorations; 2 - after the cleaning.

Fig. 15. Nebelivka. Mega-structure, the western part of excavation, clay bin with milling stone: 1 - corner and a broken pot inside; 2 - coating of the bottom and the remains of a construction in the center; 3 - fragment of a rim; 4 - corner.

Fig. 16. Nebelivka, Mega-structure, the western part of excavation, milling stone and remains of the second (?) rectangular structure.

Fig. 17. Nebelivka. Mega-structure, the western part of excavation, remains of thresholds: 1 - the main entrance on the east side; 2 - entrance to the left room.

Fig. 18. Nebelivka. Mega-structure, the western part of excavation, remains of the threshold from the western side.

Fig. 19. Nebelivka. Mega-structure, eastern part of excavation, strips of daubing: 1, 2, 4 - general views of the southern strip; 3 - cross-section of the northern strip.

Fig. 20. Nebelivka. Mega-structure, the western part of excavation: pottery among strata of burnt daubing.

Fig. 21. Nebelivka. Mega-structure, the western part of excavation: broken pottery and bowls over the pit near elevation No.5.

Fig. 22. Nebelivka. Mega-structure, the western part of excavation, finds: 1 - part of a necklace made of yellow metal; 2 - pendant made of the tooth of a predatory animal.

Михаил Видейко
Crises and early urbanization processes in Europe
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XII [XXVII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
Наталья Бурдо
Interpretation of the cultural layer of the early Trypillian site of Bernashevka I
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XI [XXVI], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
Наталья Бурдо
Traces of the ritual practice at a large Trypillian culture settlement near Maydanetske
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VII [XXII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
Наталья Бурдо
Anthropomorphic figurines from early Bronze Age burial mounds in the Bug-Dnieper interfluves and the Dnieper area
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XII [XXVII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
Михаил Видейко
The channel kilns in Trypillia Culture and development of pottery
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XIII [XXVIII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică



 

 

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#Exhibit of the Month

Amphoras are massive vessels originating from the ancient Greek world, executed on the potter's wheel, in which Greek merchants, in the process of their trade with other territories and peoples, transported, in particular, Greek wine, olive oil, salted olives, paints, nuts, etc. The shape of the Greek commercial amphora, in the opinion of some researchers, vaguely recalls the female figure, having, probably, at the beginning, a sacred character. Among the main features of the amphorae are well-thought-out metric proportions...

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

menu
The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC