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Amphoras are massive vessels originating from the ancient Greek world, executed on the potter's wheel, in which Greek merchants, in the process of their trade with other territories and peoples, transported, in particular, Greek wine, olive oil, salted olives, paints, nuts, etc. The shape of the Greek commercial amphora, in the opinion of some researchers, vaguely recalls the female figure, having, probably, at the beginning, a sacred character. Among the main features of the amphorae are well-thought-out metric proportions. The full amphora, placed in a horizontal position, rested on the body and on the elongated foot in such a way that the upper part of the vessel and the high neck were permanently raised obliquely, so that the liquid would not spill. The sharp shape of the foot required special fixation, either on special supports, or the lower part of the body was buried in the ground or sand. The deep inner cavity of the leg did not allow the liquid in the vessel to become cloudy during the transport process, the sediments remaining stored inside the leg.

Among the dozens of city-states in ancient Greece, which practiced trade with the local populations of the Black Sea region (Euxine Bridge), there is also the city of Mende (Μένδη), located on the Kassandra arm (Κασσάνδρας) of the Halkidiki peninsula (Halkidiki - Χαλκιδική). It is considered that the foundation of the city of Mende took place in the century VIII BC. The main article of trade of this Greek polis was wine, considered of superior quality and even indicated by Hippocrates as a medicine in the treatment of certain diseases. Starting with the century 6th century BC, the city of Mende experienced economic growth, especially in the Circumpontian region, and in the V-IV BC Mendiot wine appears more and more frequently in the local markets of this region.

Even some barbarian tribes, according to the Greek tradition, often used wine amphorae in the funeral process, when they were placed, as an offering, in the graves, together with other objects, which were either brought as an offering to the gods, or were intended to serve the deceased in the afterlife.

Such a funerary complex was discovered by archaeologist Nicolae Chetraru in 1987 - the Scythian tumulus no. 45 from Dubăsari. The deceased was cremated, and three amphorae and a large bronze cauldron were placed in the grave. Among the amphorae (all belonging to Greek wine centers) was one from Mende, along with two others from Chios. Since the wines of Mende and Chios were considered expensive wines, as was the bronze cauldron, their presence in this mound was an indication of a privileged financial and social position of the person cremated here.

The Mende amphora from tomb 1 of mound 45 at Dubăsari is, at the moment, the only complete vessel from this center on the territory of the Republic. Moldova, although fragments of Mendiot amphorae have also been discovered in other archaeological sites in the country.

The vessel is made of a yellowish-brown paste with chewed sand and many particles of mica. The amphora has the following basic dimensions: height - 740 mm, depth - 610 mm, maximum diameter - 390 mm.

Virtual Tour


Publications Journal „Tyragetia"


Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. III [XVIII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. III [XVIII], nr. 1, Arheologie. Istorie Antică

Chișinău, 2009

I. Researches


Татьяна И. Демченко
Monuments of the Corjeuți type within the context of the Early Bronze Age History of Eastern and Central Europe

Алла Николова, Юрий Рассамакин
Clay Model of the “Cradle” from Kalanchak town and Some Aspects of the Early-Middle Bronze Age Chronology in the Dnieper-Donetsk Region

Элке Кайзер
Die absolute Datierung der Katakombengrabkultur im Nördlichen Schwarzmeerraum

Valeriu Banaru
Betrachtungen über die Vermittler der Handels- und Austauschbeziehungen zwischen der griechischen Welt und Einheimischen des nordwestlichen Pontos-Raumes auf der Grundlage archäologischer und schriftlicher Quellen des 7.-5. Jh. v. Chr.

II. Papers and surveys


Николай К. Анисюткин
The stone industry particularities of the 3a layer from Trinca 1 grotto

Sergiu-Constantin Enea
Some observations on the Neolithic and Aeneolithic ornaments in the Romanian area

Анна Никулицэ
Golden and silver adornment objects discovered at the Aeneolithic and Bronze Age monuments (on the materials from the NMAHM collections

Eugen Sava, Mariana Sîrbu
The „ashpit” settlements in the basin of Răut (Catalog)

Ion Niculiță, Andrei Nicic, Andrei Corobcean
The results of the archaeological investigations at the civil settlement Saharna „Dealul Mănăstirii” (2008 campaign)

Florea Costea, Lucia Savu, Angelica Bălos
A „fibula” with cultural valences found at Ormeniș-„Tipia Ormenișului”, Brașov county

Viorel Stoian
One possible magic kit from first iron age discovered in Braila’s plain

Сергей Фидельский
Burial of the Early Iron Age near Slobodzeja at the lower bottom of the river Dniester

Ion Tentiuc, Alexandru Levinschi
Archaeological researches from Buzduganii de Jos in the Ţuțora Valley conducted in 2008. Preliminary research results

Natalia Mateevici
Some changes in the chronology of the Rhodos amphorae seals discovered in the barbarian surroundings of the Northwestern Pontic space

Marek Żyromski
The patterns of promotion within the roman army and administration – patronage versus experience and specialization

Mateusz Żmudziński
Trade contacts of Roman Dacia

Ana Voloșciuc-Bîtcă
Certaines considerations concernant le latin de Dacie

Petre Mocanu
The crypt and church from Niculițel – symbols of Christian presence to the north of Balkans

Theodor Isvoranu, Mircea Dabîca
A gold coin from the 5th century A.D. discovered at Histria

Иван Власенко, Вячеслав М. Бикбаев
An medieval grave near the village Hîrtopul Mare

Valeriu Bubulici, Ion Tentiuc
Some monetary discoveries in the cemetery of the Assumption Church from Căușeni

Ion Tentiuc
Les carreaux des poêles avec l’images heraldiques de Căușeni

Ana Boldureanu
The chronicle of monetary discoveries (III)

Sergiu Musteață
Ethics and Professional Deontology in Archaeology

III. Paper and book review


Valeriu Banaru
Natalia Mateevici, Amforele grecești în mediul barbar din nord-vestul Pontului Euxin în sec. VI - începutul sec. II a. Chr. Chișinău, 2007. 284 p. + 353 estampaje, 37 fi guri și 18 hărți. ISBN 978-9975-80-080-8

Sergiu Musteață
Florin Curta, (Ed.), The Other Europe in the Middle Ages. Avars, Bulgars, Khazars and Cumans, Florin Curta, General Editor, East Central and Eastern Europe in the Middle Ages, 450-1450, volume 2, Leiden/Boston: BRILL, 2008, ISSN 1872-8103, ISBN 978 90 04 16389 8

Andrei Eșanu
Gheorghe Postică, Civilizația medievală timpurie din spațiul pruto-nistrean (sec. V-XIII). Cuvânt-înainte de Victor Spinei, București, Editura Academiei Române, 2007, 487 p.

IV. Homage


Aurel Zanoci, Tudor Arnăut
Profesorul Ion Niculiță la 70 de ani

Nikolaus Boroffka
Dr. Tudor Soroceanu la 65 de ani




 

 

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#Exhibit of the Month

Amphoras are massive vessels originating from the ancient Greek world, executed on the potter's wheel, in which Greek merchants, in the process of their trade with other territories and peoples, transported, in particular, Greek wine, olive oil, salted olives, paints, nuts, etc. The shape of the Greek commercial amphora, in the opinion of some researchers, vaguely recalls the female figure, having, probably, at the beginning, a sacred character. Among the main features of the amphorae are well-thought-out metric proportions...

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
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Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC