EN RO















#Exhibit of the Month

>>>

The exposed object, an "askos" type ceramic vessel, comes from the tumulus necropolis near the village of Ciumai, Taraclia district. The vessel was discovered in 2015 in a cenotaph tomb attributed to the Jamnaja culture, dated to the early Bronze Age (ca. 3300-2600 BC).

The vessel, with an obviously asymmetrical configuration, is hand-moulded from quality clay paste, having a smooth brown surface with gray spots. The body of the vessel is provided with a pronounced protrusion and a truncated neck with a wider opening towards the mouth. The vessel has a stem and is ornamented with three pairs of symmetrically placed relief appliqués. The height of the bowl is 15.5 cm, the diameter of the mouth is 11.4 cm, the diameter of the body is 15 cm and the diameter of the base is 7.5 cm. Such vessels in the archaeological literature are known as "askos" vessels, the respective term being of ancient Greek origin, denoting one of the primitive containers of the period - the bellows made of animal skin.

In prehistoric times, among some peoples, the bellows was transposed into ceramics, in these cases the basic features of the archaic leather vessel were preserved, acquiring a prominent convex shape with a stem and a flat bottom. From the original appearance of the bellows, the asymmetric mouth corresponding to the animal's neck has been preserved, and sometimes three or four legs, corresponding to the appendages of the flayed skin from the animal's legs. These vessels have lost their original zoomorphic character, entering as a new form in the inventory of Neo-Eneolithic ceramics. The first vessels of this type are attested in Greece, in the early Neolithic (ca. 5000-4500 BC) having the shape of cups or cups. In the Neo-Eneolithic Carpatho-Balkan cultures, the type of Aegean askos of short or tall form, with or without legs and with a handle, is found. Less often, they are provided with two mouths (one for filling and one for emptying) or they are off-center and provided with strangely shaped mouths. In the space between the Carpathians and the Dnieper, only tall forms of simple askos, without zoomorphic elements, are known. Askos-type vessels are present in various prehistoric cultures, especially in Southeast Europe and Anatolia.

Being often discovered in association with cult inventory, askos vessels could be an important indicator of use in religious ritual practices. Along with the zoomorphic, anthropomorphic and rhyton-type vessels (roughly conical container from which, in some ceremonies, liquids were drunk or poured), the askos were included in the category of vessels intended for worship, being related to libations (ritual act that consisted of tasting and then pouring a cup of wine, milk, etc. as homage to the deity).

Virtual Tour


Publications Journal „Tyragetia"   vol. VI [XXI], nr. 2


Bessarabian bourgeoisie in modern age (Classification, characteristics, evolution)
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

Bessarabian bourgeoisie in modern age (Classification, characteristics, evolution)

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VI [XXI], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie

In the given article the author defines the bourgeoisie as a social category linked mainly to the urban economy, which has capital and power of decision in capitalist community. The author classifies Bessarabian bourgeoisie of the nineteenth century into four categories:

1. “Economic bourgeoisie” (commercial, usurious, industrial etc.) covers, in fact, those layers that are closely linked to economic activity: the large merchants (the first and second guild), moneylenders, owners of commercial and industrial enterprises etc., which differed from each other not so much in terms of origin and the place they occupy in society, but especially in terms of interests and level of wealth. This social group was formed after the introduction of guild reform in Bessarabia according to the decision of the Governing Senate of 26 September 1830.
2. The second category consisted of state officials. Promoting a national-colonial policy in Bessarabia, tsarism based not only on the small part of local nobility that it could draw to work in various state institutions, but also on foreign element, which consisted mainly of civilian and, especially, military Russian nobility. During the first half of the nineteenth century, when there was an institutional modernization, this layer, ignored by the aristocratic elite, was evolved into the bourgeoisie, and a small part of it was actively involved in economic activities.
3. A special category was formed of people engaged in the intellectual labour, which were representatives of a wide enough range of professions: teachers of different specialties, doctors, lawyers, attorneys, engineers, etc. Characterized by different levels of wages and, respectively, different levels of wealth, this category was also varied and, like the rest, differed only by intellectual training and professional qualification.
4. On the lowest level in the Bessarabian social hierarchy there was “the petty bourgeoisie” (the lower middle class), which brought together representatives of different professions - small traders (the third guild of merchants), artisans of various specialties, owners of grocery stores, inns, coffee shops, and restaurants, chemists, butchers, petty officers, etc. The rapid development of Bessarabia towards capitalism had essentially contributed to social instability of this layer, thus causing their passage up and down the social scale. An example of this is the layer of guild merchants, who were constantly moved from one guild to another and from this social category in the petty bourgeoisie.

Analysing the commercial bourgeoisie and petty bourgeoisie, the author concludes that the peripheral situation of Bessarabia in the economic and political system of the Russian Empire has determined clearly discriminatory attitude of central authorities towards the region, which was reflected in the restriction of the rights and opportunities for local residents, mostly Moldovans, through the attraction of foreign merchants and traders from the Russian provinces, providing them with various benefits. As a result, the lack of state unity and national independence, political domination and economic exploitation by the Russian Empire directly influenced the genesis of bourgeoisie of Bessarabia. As a result, the bourgeoisie of Bessarabia was established as cosmopolitan social structure consisted largely of alien elements, supported and protected by the imperial administration.

Valentin Tomuleț, Alexandru Bordian
Priority directions in trade and customs policy of tsarism in Bessarabia in the first third of the 19th century
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. IV [XIX], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
Valentin Tomuleț
Peasant unrest in the village of Tabani, Khotyn Uyezd in connection with the agrarian reform of 1868
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XVII [XXXII], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
Valentin Tomuleț
The establishment and activity of Lancasterian schools in Bessarabia in the 1820s-1840s
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VIII [XXIII], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
Valentin Tomuleț
The protests and the revindications of the Bessarabian people in the first decades after the annexation of the territories between the Prut and Dniester rivers to Russia (years 1812-1828)
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. II [XVII], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
Valentin Tomuleț
Maria Danilov, Cenzura sinodală și cartea religioasă în Basarabia. 1812-1918 (între tradiție și politica țaristă), Biblioteca Tyragetia XIII. – Chișinău, 2007 (Tipogr. „Bons Offi ces”), 264 p.
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. II [XVII], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie



 

 

Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age
  
  

Come to Museum! Discover the History!
  
Visit museum
Visit museum
Summer schedule: daily
10am – 6pm.

Winter schedule: daily
10am – 5pm.
Closed on Fridays.
Entrance fees:  adults - 10 MDL, pensioners, adults with moderate disabilities / disability of the 3rd degree, students - 5 MDL, school students - 2 MDL. Free access: enlisted men (...)

WiFi Free Wi-Fi Zone in the museum: In the courtyard of the National History Museum of Moldova there is Wi-Fi Internet access for visitors.


#Exhibit of the Month

The exposed object, an "askos" type ceramic vessel, comes from the tumulus necropolis near the village of Ciumai, Taraclia district. The vessel was discovered in 2015 in a cenotaph tomb attributed to the Jamnaja culture, dated to the early Bronze Age (ca. 3300-2600 BC)...

Read More >>

































The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

menu
The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC