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#Exhibit of the Month

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This is a case for needles, unusually large in size. It was used in the Stone Age as a container for storing and preserving small and fragile items. The case was discovered by the famous researcher Ilie Borziac in 1996 during archaeological excavations at a multi-layered Upper Paleolithic site in the village of Cosauți, Soroca district. The artifact was found at a depth of 9.7-9.85 m in a loess-like occupation layer, among the remains of a seasonal deer hunter camp (in the so-called occupation layer 5). The occupation layer was dated by radiocarbon method to 18140 ± 180. The object is 17.6 cm long and 1.5 cm in diameter. It was made of a thin-walled tubular bone, probably of a large bird (eagle, bustard or gull). The ends of the object were cut across. A round hole 5 mm in diameter with carefully polished edges was made at one of the ends.

The entire surface of the product is polished to a shine. It is ornamented with notches. The notches are applied rhythmically around the entire perimeter. They, without a doubt, indicate that the work was made by human hands. The length of the notches is 3-3.5 mm. They are located transversely, grouped in three rows. The number of notches in the rows is 8/8, 16/10, 14/7, with an average distance between notches of 4 mm.

The researchers who addressed the issue of the functionality of this rare archaeological piece, put forward several hypotheses. One of them is that the artifact probably had a multifunctional practical utility. According to one hypothesis, the presence of a hole at one end of the object indicates that it is a flute. This opinion was called into question due to the identification of only one obvious hole on the surface of the artifact. Most likely, the presence of the hole indicates that a thread was passed through it to hang the case with needles in order to protect and secure it. On the other hand, the relatively large size of this object also allows it to be used as a coupling. According to another version, this kind of vestiges could be used by hunters to remove skins from hunted animals, as a tube for pumping air under the skin of small animals in the process of skinning them. This not only greatly facilitated the removal of the skin, but also kept the subcutaneous fat intact.

Specimens of equally large sizes, similar to the one found at the ford on the Dniester, made of tubular bone with cut off epiphyses, were discovered at several Neolithic sites in Yakutia. Here they were used as needle cases. Some of them were found with needles inside, which confirmed their practical functionality.

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Publications Journal „Tyragetia"   vol. VI [XXI], nr. 2


Bessarabian bourgeoisie in modern age (Classification, characteristics, evolution)
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

Bessarabian bourgeoisie in modern age (Classification, characteristics, evolution)

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VI [XXI], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie

In the given article the author defines the bourgeoisie as a social category linked mainly to the urban economy, which has capital and power of decision in capitalist community. The author classifies Bessarabian bourgeoisie of the nineteenth century into four categories:

1. “Economic bourgeoisie” (commercial, usurious, industrial etc.) covers, in fact, those layers that are closely linked to economic activity: the large merchants (the first and second guild), moneylenders, owners of commercial and industrial enterprises etc., which differed from each other not so much in terms of origin and the place they occupy in society, but especially in terms of interests and level of wealth. This social group was formed after the introduction of guild reform in Bessarabia according to the decision of the Governing Senate of 26 September 1830.
2. The second category consisted of state officials. Promoting a national-colonial policy in Bessarabia, tsarism based not only on the small part of local nobility that it could draw to work in various state institutions, but also on foreign element, which consisted mainly of civilian and, especially, military Russian nobility. During the first half of the nineteenth century, when there was an institutional modernization, this layer, ignored by the aristocratic elite, was evolved into the bourgeoisie, and a small part of it was actively involved in economic activities.
3. A special category was formed of people engaged in the intellectual labour, which were representatives of a wide enough range of professions: teachers of different specialties, doctors, lawyers, attorneys, engineers, etc. Characterized by different levels of wages and, respectively, different levels of wealth, this category was also varied and, like the rest, differed only by intellectual training and professional qualification.
4. On the lowest level in the Bessarabian social hierarchy there was “the petty bourgeoisie” (the lower middle class), which brought together representatives of different professions - small traders (the third guild of merchants), artisans of various specialties, owners of grocery stores, inns, coffee shops, and restaurants, chemists, butchers, petty officers, etc. The rapid development of Bessarabia towards capitalism had essentially contributed to social instability of this layer, thus causing their passage up and down the social scale. An example of this is the layer of guild merchants, who were constantly moved from one guild to another and from this social category in the petty bourgeoisie.

Analysing the commercial bourgeoisie and petty bourgeoisie, the author concludes that the peripheral situation of Bessarabia in the economic and political system of the Russian Empire has determined clearly discriminatory attitude of central authorities towards the region, which was reflected in the restriction of the rights and opportunities for local residents, mostly Moldovans, through the attraction of foreign merchants and traders from the Russian provinces, providing them with various benefits. As a result, the lack of state unity and national independence, political domination and economic exploitation by the Russian Empire directly influenced the genesis of bourgeoisie of Bessarabia. As a result, the bourgeoisie of Bessarabia was established as cosmopolitan social structure consisted largely of alien elements, supported and protected by the imperial administration.

Valentin Tomuleț, Angela Baxan
On the question of competence of the Supreme Council of Bessarabian Oblast (August 28, 1816 - February 29, 1828)
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. X [XXV], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
Valentin Tomuleț, Cristina Gherasim
Some considerations on factors that generated mentality shifts of the landlords in Bessarabia under tsarist domination (1812-1817)
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. IV [XIX], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
Valentin Tomuleț
Taxation of the mazili and ruptași social categories in Bessarabia under the Tsarist domination (1812-1847)
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VIII [XXIII], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
Valentin Tomuleț, Alexandru Bordian
Priority directions in trade and customs policy of tsarism in Bessarabia in the first third of the 19th century
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. IV [XIX], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
Valentin Tomuleț
Literate mazili and ruptași in Bessarabia in the first half of the 19th century
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. IX [XXIV], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie Chișinău, 2015



 

 

Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age

  
  
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#Exhibit of the Month

This is a case for needles, unusually large in size. It was used in the Stone Age as a container for storing and preserving small and fragile items. The case was discovered by the famous researcher Ilie Borziac in 1996 during archaeological excavations at a multi-layered Upper Paleolithic site in the village of Cosauți, Soroca district...

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC