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#Exhibit of the Month

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The word pafta is of Turkish origin and is used in almost identical forms in Romanian, Greek, Bulgarian, and Serbian languages and some Aromanian dialects, denoting clothing accessories of a functional and decorative use, which secure or catch one's girdle, sash or belt.
Such buckles are accessories of ceremonial and everyday costumes, they were worn by both prince's courtiers and commoners in the Romanian principalities during the reign of the Phanariots, when the influence of Greek culture increased.

Throughout the Balkan Peninsula, silversmiths' workshops produced buckles very different in size, alloys, technique, style, and decoration. Turkish buckles were usually lace-like, often gilded, with many stones, emphasizing opulence. At the Bulgarians and Aromanians, they are simpler, but have a specific model and symbolism. Greek buckles are mostly silver, elegantly shaped, decorated with corals and small coins. The difference between the West and the East in this regard lies in the ability of the Turks to combine other materials with precious stones. Another feature is the predominance of floral motifs over the representations of animals and birds. The peoples under Ottoman rule assimilated these features and integrated them into their own cultures.

The buckles exhibited testify to the presence of a jewelry workshop in the town of Orhei in Bessarabia in the second half of the 19th century, and the quality of workmanship, the fine processing of the details, the complex composition denote the mastery and skill of the craftsmen.

Similar in style, these three buckles are two-piece, germinating seed-shaped, with strongly pronounced tips. The border is decorated with a garland motif, which circumscribes floral decorative elements. Hook and loop fastening is covered with a decorative button. On the reverse side, both sides are equipped with two plus two vertical straps with which the belt was attached.

The buckles are made of silver, as evidenced by the metal fineness hallmark stamp "84", applied according to the regulations on both parts of the buckle, and the hallmark stamp of the jewelry workshop in Orhei - the symbol of oak in a stylized shield. The quality of the metal and workmanship is also certified by the stamp of the assayer, moreover, one of the buckles was expertized by Dmitry Tiunov and has a "ДТ" (DT) stamp on it. On both parts of the buckle, the year of manufacture 1858 and the stamp of the assayer "ПН" (PN) are stamped. The stamp on the second buckle, the initials "МИ" (MI), indicates only the craftsman who made the product. The third buckle, made in the Orhei workshop, does not have the hallmark stamps required by law on the back side, but retains the same hallmarks stamped on the side of the products: the symbol of oak, the metal fineness hallmark stamp "84", the year of manufacture - 1871, and the initials of the assayer "КС" (KS), identified as Klim Sergeev, who worked from 1868 to 1871.

Between the 1840s and 1870s, wearing buckles became obsolete, and women's fashion completely adopted Western cuts and colors. These accessories came back into fashion around 1870 thanks to Princess Elisabeth, the future Queen of Romania. She introduced at court the fashion for the Romanian national costume, decorated with buckles. Her example was followed by the female elite of that time until the eve of the First World War. And her successor, Queen Maria, with her usual elegance and refinement, continued this fashionable tradition with in the interwar period.

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Publications Journal „Tyragetia"   vol. VIII [XXIII], nr. 2


The establishment and activity of Lancasterian schools in Bessarabia in the 1820s-1840s
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

The establishment and activity of Lancasterian schools in Bessarabia in the 1820s-1840s

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VIII [XXIII], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie

In the given article the author examines the Lancasterian System of Education established in Bessarabia on May 28, 1823 at the proposal of Count I.A. Kapodistrias. Initially, these schools were opened in Chișinău, Bălți and Ismail, and later in Bender and Hotin. Education in them was based on a system of mutual learning.

The founder of the Lancasterian System of Education was an English teacher Joseph Lancaster, who was teaching poor children without payment. The originality of this system is that its methods do not have a purely religious character; we can say that the teaching of religion was limited to reading the Bible without its interpretation. It should be noted that the mutual education system in Bessarabia was introduced at the behest of Alexander I.

The first Lancasterian school was opened in Chisinau on February 7, 1824 (under the leadership of Iacob Hâncu), then in Bălți – on 11 May (under the leadership of Teodor Bobeicu), and in Ismail – on 26 May of the same year (under the leadership of Lavrentiy Kunitsky). In 1824, at the request of the Rector of the Chișinău Theological Seminary V. Purishkevich there have been established two schools: the first one was opened on March 13 in Bender, having as a teacher the graduate of the Theological Seminary Andrei Timoshevsky, and the second – on December 7 in Hotin, having as a teacher the graduate of the same Seminary Ioan Rodostat. In 1833, in these 5 Lancasterian schools there were studying 375 students: in the school from Chișinău - 136 students, from Ismail – 77, from Balti – 40, from Hotin – 73 and from Bender – 49 students. Apart from these fi ve schools, in this period a Lancasterian school was functioning in the Bulgarian colony of Bolgrad in the Ismail County. In 1843 Lancasterian schools were also opened in Orhei, Soroca, Cahul, and on August 14, 1846 the second such a school was established in Chișinău.

To maintain Lancasterian schools in Bessarabia there were spent annually 3780 assignation roubles. But the Lancasterian schools have not received much popularity among the population, and attempts to establish these schools in villages were unsuccessful. At the end of the 1840s some of them, except the Chișinău Lancasterian School, were transformed into preparatory classes of the county gymnasiums, while others merged with the new parochial schools, which started to appear in Bessarabia under the Regulation of parochial schools in 1836.

Valentin Tomuleț, Victoria Bivol
Representatives of bourgeois elite in Bessarabia: Greek merchant Pantelei Sinadino (1830-1850)
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VII [XXII], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
Valentin Tomuleț, Victoria Bivol
The elites of Bessarabian bourgeoisie: Armenian and Greek wholesale merchants (1812-1868)
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VI [XXI], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
Valentin Tomuleț
The protests and the revindications of the Bessarabian people in the first decades after the annexation of the territories between the Prut and Dniester rivers to Russia (years 1812-1828)
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. II [XVII], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
Valentin Tomuleț
The legal status of călărași in Bessarabia: from Moldovan traditions to the Russian imperial administrative system
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VII [XXII], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
Valentin Tomuleț
Bessarabian bourgeoisie in modern age (Classification, characteristics, evolution)
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VI [XXI], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie



 

 

Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age

  
  
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#Exhibit of the Month

The word pafta is of Turkish origin and is used in almost identical forms in Romanian, Greek, Bulgarian, and Serbian languages and some Aromanian dialects, denoting clothing accessories of a functional and decorative use, which secure or catch one's girdle, sash or belt...

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC