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One of the great technical achievements that revolutionized the idea of time and space, opening a new era in the history of communication, is telegraphy. It is based on the transmission of electrical signals through a cable over long distances, allowing people to communicate instantly. The telegraph spread very quickly and a network of wires stretched around the world.

In 1837, the American painter and physicist Samuel Morse invented the first electromagnetic device for telegraphy, patented in 1840. To send messages by wire, Morse developed in 1838 a simple code of dots and dashes, which represented the letters of the alphabet, known as "Morse code ".

Both Morse code and the telegraph machine were improved over time, with the telegraph becoming the most widespread system of communication and information transmission for more than a century, until the advent of the Internet. The telegraph system consisted of a series of stations repeaters along the transmission line route. Each station had an operator who received and transmitted messages by telegraph. The Morse machine transmitted about 25 words per minute, which were recorded in code on a paper tape. The operator in charge of transmitting the message would decode it and write it on paper using a special typewriter.

In Bessarabia, the telegraph entered in 1860: on April 8, the Bender telegraph station began its activity, and on April 24, the one in Chisinau, following the construction of the first Odesa-Chisinau-Leova telegraph line. Currently, telegraph services have been discontinued. The only ones who still use coded communication are radio amateurs.

The Morse telegraph machine shown comes from the Osinoostrovsky electrotechnical plant, Soviet Union, and dates back to 1934. The exhibit was restored by Mihail Culașco.

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Publications Journal „Tyragetia"   vol. IV [XIX], nr. 2


The establishment of special administration of city Ismail and its role in the evolution of commercial bourgeoisie (1830-1853)
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

The establishment of special administration of city Ismail and its role in the evolution of commercial bourgeoisie (1830-1853)

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. IV [XIX], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie

In the present article, based on unpublished archival documents and those published, it is shown that after the annexation of Bessarabia to Russia in order to confirm the strategic and commercial importance of the port Ismail in the Danube and Black Sea and employment of province through the Danube ports in European maritime trade, according to Senate decree of September 26th 1830, the Special Administration of city Ismail was established. It included the cities of Reni and Kiliya, localities Cugurlui, Sofian, Brosaca, Hadji-Kurdish, Hasan-Spaga, Câsla, Muravleovka, Cimașir, Vylkove. Commanders of Ismail and Kilya fortresses and the Danube fleet commander were subject to the head of the Special Administration, but border service and the quarantine remained in the responsibility of the military governor. In the district which was under his subordination, the head of the Special Administration of the city Ismail was administrating the police and quarantine service, based on those provisions and instructions issued to heads of special administration of Odessa, Taganrog and Feodosia cities, being directlysubordinate to the General Governor of Novorosia and Bessarabia. Customs Service in the Special Administration of the city Ismail remained under the control of imperial institutions.

Ismail county is changing its name to County Leova, to which were passed from the Bender Land, the Leova fair, 3 settlements of state and 28 landlord settlements. From Ismail to fair of Leova the County Court, Local Court, Treasury County, Prosecutor and Engineer Land were transferred and a city magistrate was established. For maintenance of Special Administration of the city Ismail and chancery annually were allocated 3100 silver roubles.

General S.A. Tucikov was named the Head of the Special Administration of the Ismail city by the Senate decision of 27 September 1830, confirmed by emperor on 27 December 1830. On January 13 1831 S.A. Tucikov informs I.M. Sorokunski, General Governor of Novorosia and Bessarabia on this imperial decision. On January 31 1831 Regional Administration of Bessarabia discusses the modalities of institution of the Special Administration of the Ismail city. On 13 May 1831 Regional Administration of Bessarabia transmits to the general S.A. Tucikov all the attributions referring to the Special Administrative Ismail city.

Analysis of unpublished archival sources and specialized publications allows us to ascertain that special administrations created favourable conditions for business activity of commercial bourgeoisie. At the same time the special administrations was an attempted to extend the autonomy of urban municipalities to regional and central bodies of power, without carrying out a reform in this respect. This allowed the abolition of function at any time to regain authority over municipal finances. In other words, the establishment of special government was a temporary way to facilitate the development of cities-ports on the Black Sea and Azov Sea, without touching the bankrupt system Russian city found itself in first half of 19th century.

In 1857, with the passage of territory in southern Bessarabia to the Principality of Moldova, Special Administrative Ismail city ceased to exist.

Valentin Tomuleț, Cristina Gherasim
Some considerations on factors that generated mentality shifts of the landlords in Bessarabia under tsarist domination (1812-1817)
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. IV [XIX], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
Valentin Tomuleț
Peasant unrest in the village of Tabani, Khotyn Uyezd in connection with the agrarian reform of 1868
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XVII [XXXII], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
Valentin Tomuleț, Alexandru Bordian
Priority directions in trade and customs policy of tsarism in Bessarabia in the first third of the 19th century
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. IV [XIX], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
Valentin Tomuleț
Jewish colonies in Bessarabia in the 19th century
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. V [XX], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
Valentin Tomuleț, Angela Baxan
On the question of competence of the Supreme Council of Bessarabian Oblast (August 28, 1816 - February 29, 1828)
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. X [XXV], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie



 

 

Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age
  
  

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#Exhibit of the Month

One of the great technical achievements that revolutionized the idea of time and space, opening a new era in the history of communication, is telegraphy. It is based on the transmission of electrical signals through a cable over long distances, allowing people to communicate instantly...

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC