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#Exhibit of the Month

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The exposed object, an "askos" type ceramic vessel, comes from the tumulus necropolis near the village of Ciumai, Taraclia district. The vessel was discovered in 2015 in a cenotaph tomb attributed to the Jamnaja culture, dated to the early Bronze Age (ca. 3300-2600 BC).

The vessel, with an obviously asymmetrical configuration, is hand-moulded from quality clay paste, having a smooth brown surface with gray spots. The body of the vessel is provided with a pronounced protrusion and a truncated neck with a wider opening towards the mouth. The vessel has a stem and is ornamented with three pairs of symmetrically placed relief appliqués. The height of the bowl is 15.5 cm, the diameter of the mouth is 11.4 cm, the diameter of the body is 15 cm and the diameter of the base is 7.5 cm. Such vessels in the archaeological literature are known as "askos" vessels, the respective term being of ancient Greek origin, denoting one of the primitive containers of the period - the bellows made of animal skin.

In prehistoric times, among some peoples, the bellows was transposed into ceramics, in these cases the basic features of the archaic leather vessel were preserved, acquiring a prominent convex shape with a stem and a flat bottom. From the original appearance of the bellows, the asymmetric mouth corresponding to the animal's neck has been preserved, and sometimes three or four legs, corresponding to the appendages of the flayed skin from the animal's legs. These vessels have lost their original zoomorphic character, entering as a new form in the inventory of Neo-Eneolithic ceramics. The first vessels of this type are attested in Greece, in the early Neolithic (ca. 5000-4500 BC) having the shape of cups or cups. In the Neo-Eneolithic Carpatho-Balkan cultures, the type of Aegean askos of short or tall form, with or without legs and with a handle, is found. Less often, they are provided with two mouths (one for filling and one for emptying) or they are off-center and provided with strangely shaped mouths. In the space between the Carpathians and the Dnieper, only tall forms of simple askos, without zoomorphic elements, are known. Askos-type vessels are present in various prehistoric cultures, especially in Southeast Europe and Anatolia.

Being often discovered in association with cult inventory, askos vessels could be an important indicator of use in religious ritual practices. Along with the zoomorphic, anthropomorphic and rhyton-type vessels (roughly conical container from which, in some ceremonies, liquids were drunk or poured), the askos were included in the category of vessels intended for worship, being related to libations (ritual act that consisted of tasting and then pouring a cup of wine, milk, etc. as homage to the deity).

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Publications Journal „Tyragetia"   vol. IV [XIX], nr. 2


Priority directions in trade and customs policy of tsarism in Bessarabia in the first third of the 19th century
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

Priority directions in trade and customs policy of tsarism in Bessarabia in the first third of the 19th century

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. IV [XIX], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie

In this article, based on archival documents and the published, the changes that have occurred in Russian commercial legislation of Bessarabia after its annexation to the Russian Empire are analysed. These changes were conditioned by the following economic and political circumstances:

1. After the Congress of Vienna, Tsarism fearing of diplomatic isolation, tends to bind all the countries participating in the congress with such a system of treaties and agreements, which would be excluded infringement of equilibrium of forces in Europe. The seek of allies, wish to retain the rapport of forces established in Europe and its prestigious role, the fear to find itself in diplomatic isolation made Tsarism become adept of free trade policy. To achieve this goal, Tsarism is forced to move from prohibitive custom tariff of 1810 to the liberal tariffs of 1816 and 1819 which reflected the principle of free trade established at the Congress of Vienna.
2. The tendency to promote free trade policy was reflected directly and over Bessarabia. After adoption of the customs tariff of 31 March 1816, in Bessarabia are adopted new legislative acts, which were generalized in the Council of Ministers decision of 28 November 1816, the purpose of which was to reorient Bessarabian trade from traditional European markets to Russian internal market and to prepare the ground for the inclusion of Bessarabia in the economic and political system of Russian Empire.

3. But the decision to obey free trade policy taken at the Congress of Vienna by European countries wasn’t observed. Russia has proved to be the only country that acceded to the principle of free trade. From the adoption of liberal custom tariff in 1819 beneficiated Prussia, Austria and Poland. The new tariff has aroused a negative reaction from the Russian bourgeoisie, which was unable to face free competition from European goods and merchants. The price was an important test for the younger Russian industry, which despite all efforts could not reset, because trade policy did not meet the country’s interests. This was shown directly on development of external commerce, whose balance, for the first time during many years, becomes negative.

4. Finding itself in the situation when the Russian economy was no longer able to withstand the principles of free competition, tsarism was forced to switch custom policy from liberalism to protectionism. As a result, on February 27th 1822 a new customs tariff was adopted, this time prohibitive, which came into force on March 12th that year. The new rates would help stabilize the Russian economy.

5. With the adoption in 1822 of the prohibitive tariff the period of relative liberalism in tsarist trade policy ends. Government circles in St. Petersburg convinced that the Russian economy is not able to observe the principle of “free trade”, conducted partly in previous years. In its foreign custom and commercial policy tsarism is forced to return to the positions of protectionism, which would have to be maintained during the second quarter of the 19th century. The result of this policy is adoption of the “Regulation on trade with Bessarabia” on February 17th 1825.

Valentin Tomuleț
The establishment of special administration of city Ismail and its role in the evolution of commercial bourgeoisie (1830-1853)
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. IV [XIX], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
Valentin Tomuleț
Historiographical considerations regarding the status of ruptashi in Bessarabia under Tsarist domination (1812-1847)
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. X [XXV], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
Valentin Tomuleț
Jewish component in the ethnical structure of the commercial bourgeoisie in Bessarabia (1812-1868)
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. I [XVI], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie Chișinău, 2007
Valentin Tomuleț
The establishment and activity of Lancasterian schools in Bessarabia in the 1820s-1840s
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VIII [XXIII], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
Valentin Tomuleț
The numerical dynamic and the social structure of the population of Tabani village, in Hotin county, according to the fiscal censuses in the 1820s-1850s
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. III [XVIII], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie



 

 

Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age
  
  

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#Exhibit of the Month

The exposed object, an "askos" type ceramic vessel, comes from the tumulus necropolis near the village of Ciumai, Taraclia district. The vessel was discovered in 2015 in a cenotaph tomb attributed to the Jamnaja culture, dated to the early Bronze Age (ca. 3300-2600 BC)...

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC