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#Exhibit of the Month

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This is a case for needles, unusually large in size. It was used in the Stone Age as a container for storing and preserving small and fragile items. The case was discovered by the famous researcher Ilie Borziac in 1996 during archaeological excavations at a multi-layered Upper Paleolithic site in the village of Cosauți, Soroca district. The artifact was found at a depth of 9.7-9.85 m in a loess-like occupation layer, among the remains of a seasonal deer hunter camp (in the so-called occupation layer 5). The occupation layer was dated by radiocarbon method to 18140 ± 180. The object is 17.6 cm long and 1.5 cm in diameter. It was made of a thin-walled tubular bone, probably of a large bird (eagle, bustard or gull). The ends of the object were cut across. A round hole 5 mm in diameter with carefully polished edges was made at one of the ends.

The entire surface of the product is polished to a shine. It is ornamented with notches. The notches are applied rhythmically around the entire perimeter. They, without a doubt, indicate that the work was made by human hands. The length of the notches is 3-3.5 mm. They are located transversely, grouped in three rows. The number of notches in the rows is 8/8, 16/10, 14/7, with an average distance between notches of 4 mm.

The researchers who addressed the issue of the functionality of this rare archaeological piece, put forward several hypotheses. One of them is that the artifact probably had a multifunctional practical utility. According to one hypothesis, the presence of a hole at one end of the object indicates that it is a flute. This opinion was called into question due to the identification of only one obvious hole on the surface of the artifact. Most likely, the presence of the hole indicates that a thread was passed through it to hang the case with needles in order to protect and secure it. On the other hand, the relatively large size of this object also allows it to be used as a coupling. According to another version, this kind of vestiges could be used by hunters to remove skins from hunted animals, as a tube for pumping air under the skin of small animals in the process of skinning them. This not only greatly facilitated the removal of the skin, but also kept the subcutaneous fat intact.

Specimens of equally large sizes, similar to the one found at the ford on the Dniester, made of tubular bone with cut off epiphyses, were discovered at several Neolithic sites in Yakutia. Here they were used as needle cases. Some of them were found with needles inside, which confirmed their practical functionality.

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Publications Journal „Tyragetia"   vol. IV [XIX], nr. 2


Priority directions in trade and customs policy of tsarism in Bessarabia in the first third of the 19th century
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

Priority directions in trade and customs policy of tsarism in Bessarabia in the first third of the 19th century

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. IV [XIX], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie

In this article, based on archival documents and the published, the changes that have occurred in Russian commercial legislation of Bessarabia after its annexation to the Russian Empire are analysed. These changes were conditioned by the following economic and political circumstances:

1. After the Congress of Vienna, Tsarism fearing of diplomatic isolation, tends to bind all the countries participating in the congress with such a system of treaties and agreements, which would be excluded infringement of equilibrium of forces in Europe. The seek of allies, wish to retain the rapport of forces established in Europe and its prestigious role, the fear to find itself in diplomatic isolation made Tsarism become adept of free trade policy. To achieve this goal, Tsarism is forced to move from prohibitive custom tariff of 1810 to the liberal tariffs of 1816 and 1819 which reflected the principle of free trade established at the Congress of Vienna.
2. The tendency to promote free trade policy was reflected directly and over Bessarabia. After adoption of the customs tariff of 31 March 1816, in Bessarabia are adopted new legislative acts, which were generalized in the Council of Ministers decision of 28 November 1816, the purpose of which was to reorient Bessarabian trade from traditional European markets to Russian internal market and to prepare the ground for the inclusion of Bessarabia in the economic and political system of Russian Empire.

3. But the decision to obey free trade policy taken at the Congress of Vienna by European countries wasn’t observed. Russia has proved to be the only country that acceded to the principle of free trade. From the adoption of liberal custom tariff in 1819 beneficiated Prussia, Austria and Poland. The new tariff has aroused a negative reaction from the Russian bourgeoisie, which was unable to face free competition from European goods and merchants. The price was an important test for the younger Russian industry, which despite all efforts could not reset, because trade policy did not meet the country’s interests. This was shown directly on development of external commerce, whose balance, for the first time during many years, becomes negative.

4. Finding itself in the situation when the Russian economy was no longer able to withstand the principles of free competition, tsarism was forced to switch custom policy from liberalism to protectionism. As a result, on February 27th 1822 a new customs tariff was adopted, this time prohibitive, which came into force on March 12th that year. The new rates would help stabilize the Russian economy.

5. With the adoption in 1822 of the prohibitive tariff the period of relative liberalism in tsarist trade policy ends. Government circles in St. Petersburg convinced that the Russian economy is not able to observe the principle of “free trade”, conducted partly in previous years. In its foreign custom and commercial policy tsarism is forced to return to the positions of protectionism, which would have to be maintained during the second quarter of the 19th century. The result of this policy is adoption of the “Regulation on trade with Bessarabia” on February 17th 1825.

Valentin Tomuleț
The numerical dynamic and the social structure of the population of Tabani village, in Hotin county, according to the fiscal censuses in the 1820s-1850s
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. III [XVIII], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
Valentin Tomuleț
The legal status of călărași in Bessarabia: from Moldovan traditions to the Russian imperial administrative system
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VII [XXII], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
Valentin Tomuleț
Taxation of the mazili and ruptași social categories in Bessarabia under the Tsarist domination (1812-1847)
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VIII [XXIII], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
Valentin Tomuleț
The establishment and activity of Lancasterian schools in Bessarabia in the 1820s-1840s
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VIII [XXIII], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
Valentin Tomuleț
Mazili and ruptași (and other social categories) in the statistics of the 1817 census
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XI [XXVI], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie



 

 

Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age

  
  
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#Exhibit of the Month

This is a case for needles, unusually large in size. It was used in the Stone Age as a container for storing and preserving small and fragile items. The case was discovered by the famous researcher Ilie Borziac in 1996 during archaeological excavations at a multi-layered Upper Paleolithic site in the village of Cosauți, Soroca district...

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2022 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC