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One of the great technical achievements that revolutionized the idea of time and space, opening a new era in the history of communication, is telegraphy. It is based on the transmission of electrical signals through a cable over long distances, allowing people to communicate instantly. The telegraph spread very quickly and a network of wires stretched around the world.

In 1837, the American painter and physicist Samuel Morse invented the first electromagnetic device for telegraphy, patented in 1840. To send messages by wire, Morse developed in 1838 a simple code of dots and dashes, which represented the letters of the alphabet, known as "Morse code ".

Both Morse code and the telegraph machine were improved over time, with the telegraph becoming the most widespread system of communication and information transmission for more than a century, until the advent of the Internet. The telegraph system consisted of a series of stations repeaters along the transmission line route. Each station had an operator who received and transmitted messages by telegraph. The Morse machine transmitted about 25 words per minute, which were recorded in code on a paper tape. The operator in charge of transmitting the message would decode it and write it on paper using a special typewriter.

In Bessarabia, the telegraph entered in 1860: on April 8, the Bender telegraph station began its activity, and on April 24, the one in Chisinau, following the construction of the first Odesa-Chisinau-Leova telegraph line. Currently, telegraph services have been discontinued. The only ones who still use coded communication are radio amateurs.

The Morse telegraph machine shown comes from the Osinoostrovsky electrotechnical plant, Soviet Union, and dates back to 1934. The exhibit was restored by Mihail Culașco.

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Publications Journal „Tyragetia"   vol. VII [XXII], nr. 2


The legal status of călărași in Bessarabia: from Moldovan traditions to the Russian imperial administrative system
ISSN 1857-0240
E-ISSN 2537-6330

The legal status of călărași in Bessarabia: from Moldovan traditions to the Russian imperial administrative system

Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VII [XXII], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie

In this study, based on archival and published sources, the author analyzes the status of călărași based on the comparative approach: from the Moldovan traditions to Russian imperial administrative system. The author ascertains that călărași as the guards' category were mentioned in the documentary information from the 16th century, as being recruited among free peasants and obliged to go to war on their own account at the request of the rulers, for tax exemption or the right to use royal estates.

Over the centuries this social category has undergone significant changes, not only numerically but also in terms of social and legal status. In the 18th century, with the decline of military importance of the călărași, their secondary tasks were maintained and extended. The privileges enjoyed by this social category were confirmed by rulers, similar to the privileged classes of society.

Upon annexation of Bessarabia to Russia călărași kept only auxiliary functions, being considered serving for local governments, persons responsible for local security; during wartime they participated in the finding of carts for the transportation of supplies, etc.

Călărași formed indigenous militia and were at the command of ispravnic for the execution of different tasks in the counties. They were employed in the service from the free villages exempted of any drudgery and tax, but a military billeting; they immediately obeyed ispravnic's orders, receiving annual payment in money.

Over time, the tsarist government, as with other social groups, tried to regulate this category of servants, limiting their activities, reducing substantially its number and fitting it into some legal rules. For this purpose there even was made up a regulation statute for călărași. Despite privileges enjoyed by this social category, the situation of călărași was not easy, as evidenced by the many complaints from them at various district and regional administrative offices.

Valentin Tomuleț
Peasant unrest in the village of Tabani, Khotyn Uyezd in connection with the agrarian reform of 1868
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. XVII [XXXII], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
Valentin Tomuleț
Bessarabian bourgeoisie in modern age (Classification, characteristics, evolution)
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. VI [XXI], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
Valentin Tomuleț
The numerical dynamic and the social structure of the population of Tabani village, in Hotin county, according to the fiscal censuses in the 1820s-1850s
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. III [XVIII], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
Valentin Tomuleț, Alexandru Bordian
Priority directions in trade and customs policy of tsarism in Bessarabia in the first third of the 19th century
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. IV [XIX], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie
Valentin Tomuleț
Literate mazili and ruptași in Bessarabia in the first half of the 19th century
Tyragetia, serie nouă, vol. IX [XXIV], nr. 2, Istorie. Muzeologie Chișinău, 2015



 

 

Independent Moldova
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
Bessarabia and MASSR between the Two World Wars
Bessarabia and Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Period between the Two World Wars
Revival of National Movement
Time of Reforms and their Consequences
Abolition of Autonomy. Bessarabia – a New Tsarist Colony
Period of Relative Autonomy of Bessarabia within the Russian Empire
Phanariot Regime
Golden Age of the Romanian Culture
Struggle for Maintaining of Independence of Moldova
Formation of Independent Medieval State of Moldova
Era of the
Great Nomad Migrations
Early Middle Ages
Iron Age and Antiquity
Bronze Age
Aeneolithic Age
Neolithic Age
Palaeolithic Age
  
  

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#Exhibit of the Month

One of the great technical achievements that revolutionized the idea of time and space, opening a new era in the history of communication, is telegraphy. It is based on the transmission of electrical signals through a cable over long distances, allowing people to communicate instantly...

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

 



The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC

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The National Museum of History of Moldova takes place among the most significant museum institutions of the Republic of Moldova, in terms of both its collection and scientific reputation.
©2006-2024 National Museum of History of Moldova
Visit museum 31 August 1989 St., 121 A, MD 2012, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
Phones:
Secretariat: +373 (22) 24-43-25
Department of Public Relations and Museum Education: +373 (22) 24-04-26
Fax: +373 (22) 24-43-69
E-mail: office@nationalmuseum.md
Technical Support: info@nationalmuseum.md
Web site administration and maintenance: Andrei EMILCIUC