Keywords: Bessarabia, the Charter on the Formation of the Bessarabian Oblast, the Supreme Council of the Bessarabian Oblast, the government of the Bessarabian Oblast, the civil governor, Viceroy (Namestnik) of the Bessarabian Oblast with plenipotentiary powers, Governor-General of New Russia and Bessarabia, Bessarabian Regional Criminal Court, Bessarabian Regional Civil Court.
Abstract: The Supreme Council of the Bessarabian Oblast as the supreme legislative, administrative and judicial authority of Bessarabia was formed from among the members of the two departments of the regional government on August 28, 1816, reorganized (in the source - established) on April 29, 1818 and authorized to carry out the organizational, administrative, economic, and judicial functions.
After the Charter on the Formation of the Bessarabian Oblast was adopted on April 29, 1918, the administrative and judicial power in the region was held by the Supreme Council. Its competence includes monitoring and verification of all matters relating to decision-making in the executive, public and economic spheres, criminal and procedural aﬀairs, and civil law; it was as well involved in all matters relating to movable, immovable, and land property. Its decisions, being approved by a majority vote, were not subject to appellate review and implemented immediately. Those who did not agree with a decision of the Supreme Council could appeal against this decision to the State Council through the Minister of Justice or the General Prosecutor.
The decisions of special importance, which required further amendments or new resolutions, were considered at the general meeting of the Supreme Council on the proposal of the Governor-General, or, in his absence, the civil governor. The amendments were to be submitted for approval to the State Council by the Governor-General or the General Prosecutor.
The Supreme Council consisted of 11 members: five members appointed (Namestnik (who held the oﬃce of President), the Governor, Deputy Governor, presidents of criminal and civil courts) and six members elected by the local nobility for a period of 3 years, whose appointment was to be confirmed by the Namestnic of Bessarabia and the regional marshal of the nobility. The Supreme Council Decisions were approved by a quorum of 6 people and were final.
The Supreme Council included: the Namestnik of Bessarabia (who held the oﬃce of President) - Lieutenant-Genral M.S. Vorontsov; the civil governor - the oﬃcial of 4th grade Catacazi; deputy governor - the oﬃcial of 5th grade Krupensky; the regional marshal of the nobility - the oﬃcial of 6th grade Sturdza; the president of criminal court
- the oﬃcial of 5th grade Kurik; the president of the civil court - the oﬃcial of 6th grade Basota as well as 4 deputes: oﬃcials of 11th grade Katargi and Donici, the oﬃcial of 7th grade Pruncul, and the oﬃcial of 6th grade Kazimir.
Particularly important issues and matters relating to changes to the normative acts were considered at plenary meetings of the Supreme Council, on the proposal of the Namestnik of Bessarabia, or, in his absence, on the proposal of the civil governor. Taken decisions, accompanied by an explanatory note of the President of the Council, through the General Prosecutor, were dispatched for the approval to the State Council. If the discussed issues were of minor importance, the presence of the President of the Supreme Council at the meetings was not mandatory. In the absence of the President, the Supreme Council presidency was taken over by the person who held the highest oﬃce in the administrative hierarchy of Bessarabia.
The Supreme Council of Bessarabia was abolished by the Regulation of February 29, 1828.