Korolevo, castle of Nyalab, 14th-15th centuries, Voivode Szasz, Balk, Drág, Janos Olah, Perényi Péter, ceramics
Abstract: The sons of Voivode Szasz moved to Hungary after Bohdan had possessed a position of Moldavian Voivode in 1359 and started an open conflict with Hungarian Crown. As a kind of reimbursement, they have possessed high positions here and became the owners of extensive property.
Within a short period of time they have taken possession of Kővár, Beltek, Erdőd domains as well as property in Máramaros. They became one of the most influential nobles of Hungary. They had received pro honore Nyalab domain with the center in the castle of Korolevo from the king Louis in 70s of the 14th century and governed it as the Counts of Ugocsa County. After Balk's death the castle had to be returned to the king. However, descendants of Moldavian nobles had refused to leave fortifications and started property disputes among themselves.
Perényi Péter, new Count of Ugocsa County, has started to govern the castle in 1402. He had taken advantage of the absence of ownership confirmation document and legally formalized his hereditary ownership in 1405. Dragﬀy family had continued a lawsuit for about hundred years, and even resorted to openly criminal activity in 70s of the 15th century when they forged the royal charter sealed by king.
A little bit more than 20 years long presence of the descendants of Moldavian Voivode Szasz at Korolevo castle of Nyalab is minimally displayed by archeological materials of the monument. As for today, given chronological range contains only one object at the castle - pit 1 horizon III excavation ІІ (room 1, study of 2013). Small ceramic fragments, remains of three vessels, and unfinished product made of bone have been found in it.
List of illustrations:
Fig. 1. Koroleve. Central part of Nyalab castle.
Fig. 2. Forged in 1470s Granting charter of 1378 of the king Louis to Drag and Janos Olah on Nyalab domain ownership (State Archive of Hungary / Magyar Országos Levéltár, Budapest, DL26566).
Fig. 3. Korolevo castle of Nyalab. Test pit 3 (view from west).
Fig. 4. The first page and a colophon of Korolevo Tetra-Gospel, 1401 (Zakarpattya Museum of Local History).
Fig. 5. Korolevo castle of Nyalab. Plan of excavation ІІ and section of test pit1.
Fig. 6. Korolevo castle of Nyalab. Pit 1, excavation ІІ (view from west).
Fig. 7. Korolevo castle of Nyalab. Pit 1, excavation ІІ (view from east).
Fig. 8. Korolevo castle of Nyalab. Pit 1, excavation ІІ. Jug.
Fig. 9. Korolevo castle of Nyalab. Pit 1, excavation ІІ. Ceramics (1-2) and bone-made product (3).
Fig. 10. Korolevo castle of Nyalab. Pit 1, excavation ІІ. Ceramics.